A Short History of Rome – Chronology


509-264 B. c.

The conquest of Italy (Chap. IV)

The struggle between the patricians and plebeians Chap. V)

509 The consulship established

508 Treaty with Carthage

498 The dictatorship established

496 The Latins defeated at Lake Regillus

494 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount

493 The tribunate of the plebs established Treaty with the Latins

471 The concilium plebis established – The tribunes increased to ten

462 Bill proposed by Terentilius to publish the laws

451-449 The decemvirate and the twelve tables

449 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount The Valerio-Horatian laws

447 The comitia tributa established

445 The Canuleian marriage law

445-367 Struggle for the consulship; the consular tribunate

443 (or 435) The censorship established

The dates of the regal period and of the early republic are very
B. C. 421 Military quaestors chosen Plebeians eligible to first curule office, the quaestor-ship

405-396 War with Veii

382 Rome taken by the Gauls

377 The Licinian laws

366 A plebeian made consul Praetorship established Curule aedileship established Rise of the nobilitas

358 League with the Latins and Hernicans renewed

356 A plebeian made dictator

348 Treaty with Carthage

343-1 First Samnite war, so-called

340-338 Latin War, and dissolution of the Latin league

339 The Publilian laws

338 A plebeian made praetor Antium founded, first maritime colony

326 The proconsulship established

326-304 Second Samnite war

321 Roman army captured at the Caudine Pass

312-308 Reforms of Appius Claudius Caecus

312 The Via Appia and the Aqua Appia built

311 First duoviri navales appointed About

300 The Ovinian law

298-290 Third Samnite war

295 Battle of Sentinum

287 The Hortensian law

281-272 War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus

280 Battle of Heraclea

279 Battle of Asculum

275 Battle of Beneventum

Colonies planted in southern Italy

268 Silver coinage introduced

THE REPUBLIC 264-133 B. c.

The conquest of the Mediterranean Lands (Chap. VI) and its effect on Rome (Chap. VII)

264-241 First Punic war

263 Treaty with Hiero

260 Battle of Mylae

256 Battle off Ecnomus
Regulus besieges Carthage

249 Roman defeat at Drepana

247 Hamilcar Barcas commands in Sicily

341 Treaty made Sicily acquired

241 (7) Centuriate comitia reformed

240 Livius Andronicus brings out first Latin play

239 Birth of Ennius

238 Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica

238-222 Gallic wars

237 Hamilcar develops Spain

234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato

229-228 Ilyrian war

227 Number of praetors increased to four

219 Hannibal takes Saguntum

218-201 Second Punic war

218 Hannibal enters Italy Battles of the Ticinus and the Trebia

217 Battle of Lake Trasimene

216 Battle of Cannae

215 Alliance between Hannibal and Philip

215-205 First Macedonian war

212 Marcellus takes Syracuse

211-206 P. Cornelius Scipio subdues Spain

207 Battle of the Metaurus

204 Scipio crosses to Africa

202 Battle of Zama

201 Treaty made

200-Literary activity of Plautus

About 200 Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria Romanized

200-196 Second Macedonian war

197 Battle of Cynoscephalae

197 Provinces of Hither and Farther Spain established

196 Independence of Greece proclaimed

195 Cato’s unsuccessful defence of the Appian law against extravagance

192-189 War with Antiochus III

190 Battle of Magnesia, followed by treaty

171-167 Third Macedonian war

168 Battle of Pydna

159 Death of Terence

27 B. C. – A. D. 14 Reign of Augustus

17 B. c. Publication of the Aeneid

35-13 B. c. Literary activity of Horace

A. D. 139 Completion of Hadrian’s Mausoleum

161-180 Reign of Marcus Aurelius

162-166 War with Parthia

167-168 Italy ravaged by the plague

167-175 First war with the Marcomanni

177 Repression of Christianity by M. Aurelius begins

178-180 Second war with the Marcomanni

180-192 Reign of Commodus

193 Reigns of Pertinax and Julianus


A. D. 193-337

From Septimius Severus to Constantine (Chap. XIXI)

193-311 Reign of Septimius Severus apinian, the jurist, flourishes

211-217 Reign of Caracalla

213 All freemen made Roman citizens

217-218 Reign of Macrinus

218-222 Reign of Elagabalus

222-235 Reign of Alexander Severus

235-238 Reign of Maximinus

238-244 Reign of Gordian

244-249 Reign of Philip

249-251 Reign of Decius

250 Severe treatment of the Christians

251-253 Reign of Gallus

253 Reign of Aemilianus

253-260 Reign of Valerian with his son Gallienus

253-268 Reign of Gallienus, for 7 years as his father’s coleague

260 Valerian made prisoner by the Persians

268-270 Reign of Claudius

270 Reign of Quintillus

270-275 Reign of Aurelian

272 Aurelian takes Palmyra

273 Aurelian receives the submission of Tetricus

275-276 Reign of Tacitus

276 Reign of Florianus

276-282 Reign of Probus

A. D. 282-284 Reign of Cams

384-305 Reign of Diocletian

286-305 Diocletian and Maximian rule as August

305-306 Constantius and Galerius colleagues

312 Galerius’s edict of toleration

306-324 Civil wars between aspirants for the throne

312 Battle at the Mulvian Bridge, and Constantine’s acceptance of Christianity

324-337 Constantine, sole emperor

325 The Council at Nicaea

330 Dedication of Constantinople as the imperial residence


A. D. 337-476

The Barbarian Invasions and the Western World in the Fifth Century (Chap. XIV)

337-350 The successors of Constantine quarrel

351 Constantius defeats his rivals and becomes sole emperor

351-361 Reign of Constantius

355 Julian associated with him in the government

361-363 Julian reigns alone

363-364 Reign of Jovian

364-375 Valentinian emperor in the West

364-378 Valens emperor in the East

375 Valentinian II (375-392) and Gratian (375-383)
made rulers in the West

376 The Visigoths cross the Danube

378 Battle of Adrianople

379 Theodosius emperor in the East

383 Maximus (383-388) succeeds Gratian

392-394 Eugenius emperor in the West

394 Theodosius defeats Eugenius and becomes sole
emperor (394-395)

395 The Empire divided, never to be reunited

402 Alaric invades Italy

406 Vandals, Suevi, and Burgundians invade Gaul

410 Alaric takes Rome

A. D. 425 The Visigoths settle in Gaul and Spain

429 The Vandals invade Africa

440-461 Leo the Great, pope

443 The Burgundians occupy south-eastern Gaul

449 The Saxons invade Britain

451 Attila defeated at Chalons

455 The Vandals sack Rome

476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor in Rome, abdicates Odoacer called patrician of Italy by Eastern emperor


A. D. 476-800

Reorganization of the Empire in the West (Chap. XV)

486 Clovis defeats the Romans at Soissons

493-553 The Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy, established by Theodoric

496 Clovis accepts Catholic Christianity

537-565 Justinian emperor in the East The Code compiled

533-534 Belisarius regains Africa

553 Italy restored to the Eastern empire

568 The Lombards invade Italy

590-604 Gregory the Great, pope The Christianization of Britain begins

610-641 Heraclius drives back the Persians

622 The Hegira

687 Pippin becomes ruler of all the Franks

711 The Mohammedans enter Spain

73a Battle of Poictiers

751 The Mayor of the Palace made king

768-814 Reign of Charlemagne

774 Charlemagne made king of the Lombards

772-803 Saxony conquered

787 Annexation of Bavaria

778-812 Conquest of northern Spain

800 Charlemagne crowned emperor at Rome

A Short History of Philosophy – BIBLIOGRAPHY


The works of writers mentioned in the text are not here cited.

Alaux, ‘Histoire de la Philosophic. 1882.
Baumann, ‘ Geschichte der Philosophic’. 1890.
Belfort Bax (Bohn’s). 3rd edition. 1904.
Bergmann, ‘Geschichte der Philosophic’. 2 vols. 1892-1894.
Brucker,’ Historia Critica Philosophiac’ 6 vols. 1797.
Buhle,’ Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophic’ 8 vols. 1804.
Cousin, ‘Cours d’Histoire de la Philosophic’ (English Trans.). Wight,1889.
Degerando,’ Histoire Compare’e des Systemes de la Philosophic’
2ndedition. 4 vols. 1823.
Duhring, ‘ Kritische Geschichte der Philosophic’ 4th edition. 1894.
Erdmann,’ History of Philosophy.’ 3 vols. (Trans.) 1890.
Eucken, ‘Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker.’ 1890.
Fouillde,.’ Histoire de la Philosophic,’ 1883.’
Extraits des Grands Philosophes,’ 1877.
Frank, ‘ Dictionnaire des Sciences Philosophiques.’ 2nd edition. 1875.
Hegel,’ Geschichte der Philosophic’ 3 vols. 1833.
Janet, ‘ Histoire de la Philosophic Morale et Politique’ 1858.
Janet and Sdailles,’ History of the Problems of Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Kirchner,’ Katechismus der Geschichte der Philosophic’ 1878.
Lange, ‘ Geschichte des Materialismus.’ 3 vols.
Lefevre, ‘ La Philosophic’ 1879.
Lewes, ‘ Biographical History of Philosophy.’
Maurice, ‘ Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Nourrisson, ‘Tableau des Progres de la Pense Humaine ‘1860.
Renouvier,’ Manuel de Philosophic’ 3 vols. 1842.
Ritter,’ Geschichte der Philosophic’ 12 vols. 1853.
Rogers, ‘Student’s History of Philosophy.’ New edition. 1907.
Schwegler,’ Handbook of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1879.
Stanley, ‘History of Philosophy.’ 1655.
Tennemann,’ History of Philosophy’ (English Trans.). Bohn, 1852.
Tiedemann,’ Geist der spekulativen Philosophic’ 6 vols. 1797
Trendelenburg,’ Historische Beitrage zur Philosophic’ 3 vols. 1867.
Turner, ‘History of Philosophy.’ 1903.
Ueberweg-Heinze,’ History of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1896.
Vorlander, ‘Geschichte der Philosophic’ 2 vols. 2nd edition. 1907.
Weber,’ History of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1896.
Willmann,’ Geschichte des Idealismus.’ 3 vols. 1894.
Windelband,’ History of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1893.

For Primary Sources, see Diels’ ‘Doxographi Graeci.’ 1879.
Fairbanks’ ‘The First Philosophers of Greece’ 
Mullach’s’ Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum.’ 
  Placita Philosophorum.’ 1893.
Preller, ‘Griechische Mythologie.’ 2 vols. 1875.
Ritter and Preller’s ‘ Historia Philosophiae Graecac’
Adam,’ Religious Teachers of Greece’ 1908.
Benn, ‘The Greek Philosophers.’ 2 vols. 1882.
Brandis, ‘ Handbuch der Griechisch-Romischen Philosophic’ 6 vols.
Brandis, ‘Geschichte der Entwickelung der Griechischen Philosophic’2 vols.
Burnet, ‘Early Greek Philosophy.’ 2nd edition. 1908.
Caird,’ Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers.’ 2 vols. 1904.
Chaignet, ‘ Histoire de la Psychologie des Grecs.’ 5 vols. 1892.
Collins,’ Ancient Classics.’ Diogenes Laertius (Trans.).
Ferrier,’ Lectures on Greek Philosophy.’ 1866.
Gomperz,’ The Greek Thinkers’ (Trans.). 3 vols.
Grote, ‘History of Greece’ 12 vols. And ‘Plato and Companions of Socrates.’
Kostlin, ‘ Die Ethik des klassischen Altherthums.’ 1887.
Mahaffy,’ History of Classical Greek Literature’ 3 vols. 1892.
Marshall,’ A Short History of Greek Philosophy.’ 1891.
Mayor,’ A Sketch of Ancient Philosophy from Thales to Cicero.’ 1881.
Mtiller, ‘Die Geschichte der Griechischen Literatur.’ 2 vols. 1884.
Pater, W.,’ Plato and Platonism.’Schwegler,’ Geschichte der Griechischen
Philosophic’ 1886.
Snider,’ Ancient European Philosophy.’ 1903.
Windelband, ‘Geschichte der Griechischen Philosophic’ 2nd edition. 1894.
Zeller, ‘Die Philosophic der Gricchen in ihren geschichlichen Entwickelung.’
5 vols.
Ziegler, ‘Die Ethik der Griechen und Romer.’ 1881.


Adams, E. B.,’ Civilization during the Middle Ages.’
Allen, ‘Continuity of Christian Thought.’
Baur,’ Kirchengeschichte der drei ersten Jahrhunderte’.
Bigg, ‘ Christian Platonists of Alexandria’
Bryce,’ The Holy Roman Empire.’
Burckhardt,’ Civilization of the Renaissance’ (Trans.).
Carriere, ‘Die philosophische Weltanschauung der Reformationszeit.’  1847.
Cellini, ‘ Autobiography.’
Church, ‘ St. Anselm.’Ab&ard.’ 
De Wulf, ‘ Histoire de la Philosophic Me’dievale,’ 1900.
Donaldson, ‘Critical History of Christian Literature and Doctrine.’3 vols.
And ‘Apostolic Fathers.’ 1874.
Draper, ‘ Intellectual Development of Europe.’ 2 vols.
Drummond, ‘Philo Judaeus, or Jewish-Alexandrian Philosophy in itsDevelopment and Completion.’ 2 vols. 1888.
Duruy, ‘ History of the Middle Ages.’ 
Fisher,’ History of Christian Doctrine.’ 
For Patristic Period. ‘ Writings of Fathers,’ collected by Migne. 1844.
Frith, ‘Life of Bruno.’ 
Hallam,’ Literature of Europe in the Middle Ages.’
Harnack, A.,’ Lehrbuch der Dogmen-Geschichte.’ 3 vols. 1890.
Hatch, ‘ Hibbert Lectures.’
Haur&u, B.,’ Histoire de la Philosophic Scholastique.’
Haure’au, ‘De la Philosophic Scholastique.’ 2 vols. 1872.
Hilgenfeld’s ‘ Ketzer Geschichte.’
Lecky, ‘History of Rationalism in Europe’ and ‘History of EuropeanMorals.’
4 vols.
Luthardt,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Ethik.’ 1888.
Mahafry, ‘ Greek World under Roman Sway.’
Mansel, ‘ Gnostic Heresies.’ 
Matter, ‘ Histoire du Gnosticisme.’
Maurice, ‘ Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy.’
Neander, ‘ Church History’ and ‘St. Bernard’ (Trans.).
Peschel,’ Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen.’ 1879.
Pfleiderer, ‘ Das Urchristenthum.’ 1887.
Poole, ‘Illustrations of Thought in the Middle Ages.’
Ptinjer,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Philosophic’ 2 vols.
Ritschl, ‘Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirchc’ 2nd edition. 1857.
Stockl, A., ‘Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters.’ 3 vols. 1866.
Storr,’ Bernard of Clairvaux.’ 
Symonds, J. A.,’ Renaissance in Italy.1 7 vols. 1886.
Townsend,’ Great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages.’
Trench,’ Mediaeval Church History.’
Vaughan,’ Hours with the Mystics.’
Werner,’ Die Scholastik des spateren Mittelalters.’ 3 vols. 1881.
West, ‘Alcuin.’ 
Whitaker, ‘The Neo-Platonists.’
Workman, H. B.,’ Church of the West in the Middle Ages.’ 2 vols.
Ziegler,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Ethik.’ 1886.

Adamson, ‘Development of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Burt,’ History of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols. 1892.
Caldecott and MacKintosh,’ Selections from Literature of Theism.’
Cousin,’ History of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Dewine, ‘Introduction to History of Modern Philosophy.’
Eucken,’ Beitrage zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1886.
Falckenberg,’ History of Modern Philosophy.’
Fischer, Kuno,’ Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’
Frank, ‘Geschichte der neueren Theologic’ 
Gervinus,’ Literatur-Geschichtc’ 5 vols.
Griggs,’ Philosophical Classics.’
Hoffding,’ History of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Levy-Bruhl,’ History of Modern Philosophy in France’
Pfleiderer, ‘Development of Theology since Kant.’
Ritter, ‘Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1850-3.
Royce,’ Spirit of Modern Philosophy.’
Windelband, ‘Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1880.’
Die Philosophic im 2oten Jahrhundert.’ 1907.
Zeller, E.,’ Geschichte der Deutschen Philosophic seit Leibnitz.’

Bosanquet,’ History of Aesthetics.’
Buckle,’ History of Civilization in England.’ 1857. 
Caird, E.,’ Evolution of Religio 2 vols.
Caird, J.,’ Introduction to Philosophy of Religion.’ 1879.
Cairns, J.,’ Unbelief in the Eighteenth Century.’
Carlyle, ‘ French Revolution.’ „ ‘Essays on Voltaire, Diderot, Novalis, Tieck,’
Chalybaus,’ Historical Development of Speculative Thought from Kantto
Clodd, E., ‘Pioneers of Evolution from Thales to Huxley.’
Dessoir, ‘Geschichte der neueren Psychologic’
Eucken,’ Geschichte und Kritik der Grundbegriffe der Gegenwart.’
2ndedition. 1893.
Flint,’ History of Philosophy of History.’
Heine, H., ‘ Thoughts on Literature and Philosophy.’
Hettner, ‘Literatur-Geschichte der 18. Jahrhunderts.’ 1870.
Hoffding,’ Einleitung in die Englische Philosophie unserer Zeit.’ 1889.
Moderne Philosophen.’ 2nd edition. 1905.
Inge,’ Christian Mysticism.’
Janet,’ The Materialism of the Present Day.’
Theory of Morals and Final Causes.’
Jodl,’ Geschichte der Ethik.’
Konig,’ Die Entwickelung der Causalproblems.’ 1888 and 1890.
Ktilpe, Oswald, ‘Die Philosophie der Gegenwart in Deutschland.’ 1903.
Lechler, G. V.,’ Geschichte des Englischen Deismus.’ 1841.
Lichtenberger, ‘ History of German Theology in the NineteenthCentury.’
Liilman, ‘Das Bild des Christenthums bei der grossen DeutschenIdealisten.’
M’Cosh, ‘ Scottish Philosophy.’
Mackintosh, R., ‘From Comte to Benjamin Kidd.’
Mackintosh,’ On the Progress of Ethical Philosophy during the
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.’ 1872.
Martineau,’ Types of Ethical Theory.’
Morley, l Diderot and the Encyclopedists.’  ‘ 
Voltaire.’  ‘
Rousseau.’ Noire, Ludw., ‘Development of Philosophic Thought from Thales to Kant
Oman, J., ‘ Problems of Faith and Freedom in the last two Centuries.’
Pfleiderer,’ Religionsphilosophie.’ 2 vols. English translation. 1888.
Praeger, ‘Geschichte der Deutschen Mystic im Mittelalter.’
Prantl, ‘Geschichte der Logik.’ 
Rosenkrantz, ‘ Die Deutsche Mystik.’
Schaller, ‘Geschichte der Naturphilosophie seit Bacon.’ 2 vols. 1844.
Schasler, ‘Kritische Geschichte der Aesthetik.’
Seth, ‘Scottish Philosophy.’
Siebeck,’ Geschichte der Psychologie., 1880-4.
Siebert, ‘Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1905.
Stephen, Leslie,’ History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century/
Stephen, Leslie,’ The English Utilitarians.’
Villa, ‘Contemporary Psychology’ (Trans.). 1903.
Vogt, K.,’ Neo-Platonismus und Christenthum.’
Watson,’ Comte, Mill, and Spencer.’  ‘
Hedonistic Theories from Aristippus to Spencer 1895.’
The Philosophical Basis of Religion.’ 1907.
Whewell, ‘ History of Inductive Sciences.’ 1837.

On Socrates.
Forbes, ‘Socrates, World’s Epoch Maker.’ 1902.
Naville, Joel, Natorp, Doring, Gomperz. 
Piat,’ Socrate’ (‘ Grand Philosopher Series’). 1900.
Schleiermacher,’ Ueber den Wert des Sokrates als Philosophen.’ 1815.
Windelband, ‘ Praludien.’ 
Zeller, ‘ Socrates and the Socratic Schools.’

On Heraclitus.
Lassalle, Schleiermacher, Schuster, Teichmiiller, Edmund Pfleiderer.

On Pythagoras.
Chaignet, 1873.Hankel, ‘Geschichte der Math.’ 1874.

On Plato.
Adam,’ Republic’
Bosanquet,’ Companion to Republic’
Bryan,’ Republic’
Bussell, F. W.,’ The School of Plato.’ 1896.
Collins,’ Plato.
FouilHe,’ La Philosophic de Platon.’
Grote,’ Plato.’ 3 vols. Hermann,’ 
Geschichte und System der Platonischen Philosophic’ 1839.
Huit,’ La Vie et PCEuvre de Platon.’ 2 vols. 1893.
Jowett,’ Dialogues of Plato.’ 1892.
Martineau, ‘ Essay.’
Nettleship,’ Philosophical Lectures and Remains.’ 2 vols.
Pater,’ Plato and Platonism.’
Ribbing,’ Platonische Ideenlehrc’ 1863.
Ritchie, ‘ Plato.’
Schaarschmidt,’ Die Sammlung der Platonischen Schriften.’ 1866.
Seth, J.,’ Study of Ethical Principles.’
Shorey, ‘Unity of Plato’s Thought.’ 
Steinhart, 1873.
Van Oordt,’ Plato and his Times.’ 
Windelband,’ Platon.’ 1905.

On Aristotle, 
Bradley, ‘Aristotle’s Theory of the State.’ 
Complete Works. Berlin edition. 5 vols. 1831.
Davidson, ‘Aristotle and Ancient Educational Ideals.’ 1892.
Grant,’ Ethics.’ 2 vols. 1884.
Grant (‘Ancient Classics for English readers’). 1878.
Grote,’ Aristotle.’ 2 vols.
Hicks, ‘Aristotle, De Anima,’ 1907—who gives exhaustive list ofauthorities on Aristotle.
Kapper, ‘Aristotles Lexikon.’ 1894.’
Lewes, ‘ Aristotle.’ 1864.
Wallace,’ Psychology.’ 1882.
Welldon,’Ethics,’ 1892 ; ‘Politics,’ 1888.

On Bacon.
Abbott, ‘Life.’ 1885.
Church, ‘ Men of Letters.’ 1884.
Fischer, K.,’ Francis Bacon.’
Fowler,’ Novum Organum.’ 1878.
Macaulay,’ Essays.’ 
Nichol,’ Bacon.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)

On Locke and Hume.
Calderwood, ‘ David Hume.’
Elkin, ‘ Hume.’
Fraser, *’Locke.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
Green’s ‘ Introduction to Hume.’
Huxley,’ Hume.’ (‘ English Men of Letters.’)
Hyslop’s ‘ Hume’s Essays.’
Jodl, ‘ Leben und Philosophic von D. Hume.’ 1872.
Knight,’ Hume.’ 
Laurie,’ Scottish Philosophy.’
M’Cosh, ‘ Scottish Philosophy.’ 
Orr,’ Hume.’

On Berkeley.
Fraser, ‘ Selections’ and Berkeley. (‘ Philosophical Classics.’) „
‘ Collected Works.’ 4 vols. 1871.
On Leibnitz, Wolff, Tkomasius, etc.
Caspari, ‘ Leibnitz’ Philosophic’
Dewey,’ Leibnitz ‘New Essays.’
Dillmann, ‘Monadslehre.’ 1891.
Duncan, ‘Selections from the Philosophical Works of Leibnitz.’
Merz, ‘Leibnitz.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
Russell, ‘ Leibnitz’
Sorley, ‘Encyclopaedia Britannica.’
Thilly, ‘Leibnitzens Streit gegen Locke.’ 1891.

On Descartes and Spinoza.
Bolin, ‘Geisteshelden.’ 1894.
Caird, E., ‘ Essays on Literature and Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
Caird, J.,’ Spinoza.’ (c Philosophical Classics.’)
Duff, R. A., ‘Spinoza’s Political and Ethical Philosophy.’ 1903.
Iverach,’ Descartes and Spinoza.’Joachim,’ Spinoza.’ . 
Mahaffy,’ Descartes.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)  
Martineau,  Spinoza. ‘
Pollock, Fred., ‘Life and Works of Spinoza.’ 1880.
Veitch,’ Method,’ etc. 
Willis,’ Spinoza.’

On French Encyclopedists.
Caird,’ Essays on Literature, etc.
Davidson, ‘Rousseau and Education according to Nature’ 
Monographs of J. Morley’Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and Condorcet.

On Kant.
Abbott, ‘ Kant’s Theory of Ethics.’
Adamson, ‘The Philosophy of Kant.’
Adicker, ‘Kant-Studien.’ 1895. See Ueberweg-Heinze for full list.
Consult also Vries, Maimon, Krug, Reinhold, and Fichtc For
Neo-Kantism see Natorp, Cohen, Lange, etc.
Caird, E.,’ Critical Philosophy of Kant.’ 2 vols.
Cohen, ‘ Kant’s Theorie der Erfahrung,’ and other works. 
Complete works published by Hartenstein, 10 vols. Rosenkranz, 12 vols.
Cousin, ‘ Kant.’
Legons sur Kant.’ 1842.
Desdouits,’ La Philosophie de Kant d’apres les trois Critiques.’ 1876.
Green,’ Lectures.’ 
Holder,’ Kantische Erkenntnisslehrc’
Liebmann,’ Kant und die Epigonen.’
Meiklejohn,’ Translation of Critique.,
Paulsen, ‘Versuch einer Entwicklungs – Geschichte der Kantischen
Erkenntnisslehre,’ and ‘ Was Kant uns sein kann.’ ‘ Kant, Life and
Riehl, ‘Kant und seine Philosophic’ 1907.
Schurman,’ Kantian Ethics and the Ethics of Evolution.’
Seth, ‘ From Kant to Hegel’
Wallace, W.Kant.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
Watson, ‘Kant and his English Critics.’ ‘The Philosophy of Kant
Explained.’ 1908.

On Fichte, Schelling, Hegel.
Adam son,’ Fichte.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
Caird, E.,’ Hegel.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
Chalybaus,’ Speculative Thought.’
Everett,’ Fichte, Science of Knowledge.’
Fuchs,’ Schelling, Schopferischer Handeln.’ 1907.
Harris,i Hegel’s Logic’ 1890.
Haym, R.,’ Hegel und seine Zeit,’ and the ‘ Romantische Schule.’ 1870.
Hegel’s Complete Works, 19 vols. Rosenkranz, 1832-44.
Kedney,’ Hegel’s Aesthetics.’ (‘ Grieg’s Classics.’)
Kostlin, K.,’ Hegel.’
Mackintosh, R., ‘ Hegel and Hegelianism.’
Morris,’ Hegel’s Philosophy of the State and of History.’ 1887.
Rosenkranz, C, ‘ Hegel’s Leben,’ etc.
Scheer, ‘ Hegel et l’Hegelianisme.’ 1865.
Seth, ‘ Hegelianism and Personality.’  ‘ 
From Kant to Hegel.’
Stirling, Hutch.,’ Secret of Hegel.’
Ulrici,’ Princip u. Method der Hegel. Philosophic’ 1843.
Vera, ‘ Introduction a la Philosophic de Hegel.’ 1864.
Wallace, W.,’Hegel,” Prolegomena.’
Watson, l Schelling’s Transcendental Idealism.’
Zimmer,’ Fichte’s Religionsphilosophic’

On Herbart and Schopenhauer.
Capesius,’ Die Metaphysik Herbarts.’ 1878.
Kaftan. 1872. 
Ribot,’ La Psychologie allemande contemporaire 1879.
Riehl, ‘ Nietzsche, der Kunstler u. Denker.’
Seydel,’ Schopenhauer’s System.’ 1857.
Sully,’ Pessimism.’ 1891.
Volkelt, ‘Schopenhauer.’
Wallace, W. ‘Schopenhauer.’ (‘Great Writers Series.’)
Wenley,’ Aspects of Pessimism.’
Zimmern, ‘Schopenhauer, His Life and Philosophy.’ 1876.

On Schiller and Goethe.
Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe.’
Fischer, K., ‘ Schiller als Philosoph.’ 
Novalis, * Werke.’ 2 vols.
Schrempf, (Lessing, als Philosoph.’
Siebeck,’ Goethe als Denker.’

On Schleiermacher,
Bender,’ Schleiemacher’s Theologie mit ihreti Phil. Grundlagen.’
Huber, ‘Die Entwickelung des Religionsbegriffs von Schleiermacher. 
Oman, J.,’ Reden’ (Trans.). 
See also Hartenstein, Schaller, Twesten, Auberten, Ritschl, Dilthey’sLife.’

On Lotze and Wundt.
Falckenberg,’ Hermann Lotze.’ 
Jones, Prof.,’ Philosophy of Lotze.’
Konig, ‘Wundt, als Psycholog.’

On Comte.
Balfour,’ Foundations of Belief.’
Caird, E.,’ Social Philosophy of Comte.’
Lewes, G. H.,’ Comte’s Philosophy of the Sciences.’
Mackintosh, R., ‘From Comte to Benjamin Kidd.’
Martineau, H.,’ Comte.’ Condensed. 1853.
Mill, J. S., ‘Auguste Comte and Positivism.’

On Spencer,
Collins,’ Epitome of Synthetic Philosophy.’
Fiske, ‘Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy.’ 2 vols. 1874.
Fischer, ‘Uber das Gesetz d. Entwickelung.’ 1875.
Hudson,’ The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer.’
Michelet,’ Spencer’s System of Philosophic’ 1882.
Ritchie,’ Darwin and Hegel.’
Watson,’ Outline of Philosophy :Comte, Mill, Spencer.’

On Eucken.
Gibson, Royce, ‘ Eucken’s Philosophy of Life.’ 



A Short History of Paper Money and Banking – Chronology

BANKING FROM 1780 TO 1810-11.


Of Banking from 1790 to 1810-11,

In Vol. II of the American edition of the Edinburgh Cyclopedia, published in 1813, the following table is given, ” to exhibit in one view the names of the Banks most deserving of notice, the time of their institution, and the amount of their capital.” The table is not complete, but it shows the time in which the Banking system was introduced into the different States.

Names. Instituted. Capital.

Bank of North America, Pa. 1781-2 $ 2,000,000

Massachusetts Bank at Boston, Mass. 1784 1,600,000

Bank of New York, N. Y. 1784 950,000

Bank of Maryland, Md. 1790 300,000

Providence Bank, R. I. 1791 400,000

Bank of Albany, N. Y. 1792 260.000

Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1792 640,000

Union Bank of Boston, Mass. 1792 1,200,000

New Hampshire Bank, N. H. 1792 100,000

Bank of Alexandria, Va. 1792 500,000

Hartford Bank, Conn. 1792 930,000

Union Bank, New London, Conn. 1792 500,000

New Haven Bank, Conn. 1792 400,000

Bank of Columbia, N.Y. 1793 160,000

Bank of Columbia, D. C. 1793 500,000

Bank of Pennsylvania, Pa. 1793 3,000,000

Bank of Nantucket, Mass. 1795 100,000

Bank of Delaware, Del. 1795 110,000

Bank of Baltimore, Md. 1795 1,200,000

Middletown Bank, Conn. . 1795 400,000

Bank of Rhode Island, R. I. 1795 100,000

Norwich Bank, Conn. 1796 200,000

Manhattan Bank, N. Y. 1799 2,000,000

Portland Bank, Me. 1799 300,000

Essex Bank, Salem, Mass. 1799 300,000

Washington Bank, Westerly, R. I. 1800 50,000

Bank of Bristol, 1800- 120,000

Exchange Bank, Providence, R. I. 1801 400,000

Farmers’ Bank, Lansioburgh, N. Y. 1801 75,000

State Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1801 800,000

Maine Bank, Portland, Me. 1802 300,000

New Hampshire Union Bank, N.H. 1802 200,000

Names. Instituted. Capital.

Lin and Ken Bank, Wiscasset, Me. 1802 $ 200,000

Kentucky Insurance Company, Ky. 1802 150,000

Merchants Bank, N.Y. 1803 1,250,000

Bedford Bank, atN. B., Mass. 1803 150,000

New York State Bank, N. Y. 1803 460,000

Newburyport Bank, Mass. 1803 550,000

Saco Bank, Mass. 1803 100,000

Albany Mercantile N. Y. 1803 25,000

Plymouth Bank Mass. 1803 100,000

Boston Bank, Mass. 1803 1,800,000

Stafford Bank, at Dover, Mass. 1803 150,000

Philadelphia Bank, Pa- 1803 2,000,000

Miami Exporting Comp., Cinn. O. 1803 200,000

Salem Bank, Mass. 1803 200,000

Roger Williams Bank, R. I. 1803 150,000

Newport Bank, R. . 1803 120,000

Warren Bank, R. I. 1803 68,000

Exeter Bank, N H. 200,000

Union Bank of Maryland, Md. 1804 3,000,000

Bank of Cape Fear, N. C. 1804 350,000

Baokof Newhern, N C. 1804 300,000

Newark Banking and Ins., Co. N J. 1804 225,000

Trenton Bank N J 1804 300,000

Hallowell and Augusta Bank, Me. 1804 200,000

Worcester Bank, Mass. 1804 150,000

Nantucket Pacific Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

Marblehead Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

Rhode Island Union Bank, R. I. 1804 150,000

Smithfield Union Bank, R. I. 1805 50,000

Narragansett Bank, R. 1. 1805 60,000

Rhode Island Central Bank, R. I. 1805 60,000

Bank of Virginia, Va. 1805 1,500,000

Mechanics’ Bank, Baltimore, Md. 1806 1,000,000

Bank of Chilicothe, Ohio 1806 100,000

Bridgeport Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

Derby Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

Bank of Kentucky, Ky. 1807 1,000,000

Bank of Nashville, Ten. 1807 500,000

Bank of Marietta, Ohio 1807 100,000

Farmers Bk. of the State of Del., D. 1807 500,000

New Brunswick Bank, N. J. 1807 150,000

Farmers and Mechanics Bank, Pa. 1807 1,250,000

Hagerstown Bank, Md. 1807 250,000

Mohawk Bank, N. Y. 1807 200,000

New London Bank, Conn. 1807 200,000

Hudson Bank, N. Y. 1808 300,000

A Short History of Natural Science – Table of Contents

320 TO 212 B.C. I
School of Science at Alexandria

—The Ecliptic and the Zodiac

— Greeks believed that the Sun moved round the Earth

—Aristarchus knew that it was the Earth which moved

—He also knew of the Obliquity of the Ecliptic, and that the Seasons ore caused by it

—lie knew that the Earth turns daily on its Axis

—Euclid discovers that Light travels in straight lines

— Archimedes discovers the Lever

—Principle of the Lever

— Hiero’s Crown, and how Archimedes discovered the principle
of Specific Gravity

—Screw of Archimedes


280 to 120 B.C.

Erasistratus and Herophilus study the Human Body

—Eratosthenes the Geographer lays down the First Parallel of Latitude and the First Meridian of Longitude

—He measures the circumference of the Earth

—Hipparchus writes on Astronomy

—Catalogues 1080 Stars

—Calculates when Eclipses will take place

—Discovers the Precession of the Equinoxes 16


FROM A.D. 70 TO 200.

Ptolemy founds the Ptolemaic System

—He writes on Geography

—Strabo, a great traveller, writes on Geography

—Studies Earthquakes and Volcanoes

—Pliny the Naturalist

—Galen the greatest Physician of Antiquity

—Describes the two Sets of Nerves

—Proves that Arteries contain Blood

—Lays down a theory of Medicine

—Greece and her Colonies conquered by Rome

—Decay of Science in Greece

—Concluding remarks on Greek Science 32



Dark Ages of Europe

—The Arabs, checked in their conquests by Charles Martel, settle down to Science

—The Nestorians and Jews translate Greek Works on Science

—Universities of the Arabs

—Chemistry first studied by the Arabs

—Alchemy, or the attempt to make Gold

—Hermes the first Alchemist

—Hermetically-sealed Tubes

—Gases and Vapours called ‘ Spirits’ by the Arabs 39



Geber, or Djafer, the founder of Chemistry

—His Explanation of Distillation

—Of Sublimation

—Discovers that some Metals increase in weight when heated

—Discovers strong Acids

—Nitric Acid

— Sulphuric Acid

—Discovery of Sal-Ammoniac by the Arabs

—Arabs mix up Astronomy with Astrology

—Albategnius calculates the Length of the Year

— Mohammed Ben Musa, first writer on Algebra

—Uses the Indian Numerals

— Gerbcrt introduces them into Europe

—Alhazcn’s discoveries in Optics

—His Explanation why only one image of each object reaches the Brain

— His discovery of Refraction, and of its effect on the light of the Sun, Moon, and Stars

—His discovery of the magnifying power of rounded glasses 4 3



Roger Bacon

—His ‘Opus Majus’

—His Explanation of the Rainbow

—He makes Gunpowder

—Studies Gases

—Proves a Candle will not burn without Air

—His Description of a Telescope

—Speaks of Ships going without Sails

—Flavio Gioja invents the Mariner’s Compass

—Greeks knew of the Power of the Loadstone to attract Iron

—Use of the Compass in discovering new lands

—Invention of Printing

—Columbus discovers America

— Vasco de Gama sees the Stars of the Southern Hemisphere

— Magellan’s ship sails round the World

—Inventions of Leonardo a Vinci 51




Rise of Modern Science

—Dogmatism of the Middle Ages

— Reasons for studying discoveries in the order of their dates

— Copemican theory of the Universe

—Copernicus goes back to the System of Aristarchus

—Is afraid to publish his Work till quite the end of his Life

—Work of Vesalius on Anatomy

—He shows that Galen made many mistakes in describing Man’s Structure

—His Banishment and Death

—The value of his Work to Science

—Fallopius and Eustachius Anatomists

— Gesner’s Works on Animals and Plants

—He forms a Zoological Cabinet and makes a Botanical Garden

— His Natural History of Animals

—His classification of Plants according to their Seeds

—His work on Mineralogy

— Casalpinus makes the First System of Plants on Gesner’s plan

—Explains Dicecious Plants

—Chemistry of Paracelsus and Van Helmont 61



Baptiste Porta discovers the Camera Obscura

—Shows that our Eye is like a Camera Obscura

—Makes a kind of Magic Lantern by Sunlight

—Kircher afterwards makes a Magic Lantern  Lamplight

— Dr. Gilbert’s discoveries in Electricity

—Tycho  Brahe, the Danish Astronomer

—Builds an Observatory on the Island of Hnen

—Makes a great number of Observations, and draws up the Rudolphine Tables

—Galileo discovers the principle of the Pendulum

—Calculates the velocity of Falling Bodies, and shows why it increases

—Shows that Unequal Ita fall to the Ground in the same time

—Establishes the relations of Force and Weight

— Studies musical Sounds

— Stevinus on Statics

—Summary of the Science of the sixteenth century 72



Astronomical discoveries of Galileo

—The Telescope

—Galileo examines the Moon, and discovers the Earth-light upon it

—Discovers Jupiter’s four Moons

—Distinguishes the Fixed Stars from the Planets

—The phases of Venus confirm the Copernican theory

—Galileo notices Saturn’s Ring, but does not distinguish it clearly

—Observes the spots on the Sun

—The Inquisition force him to deny the movement of the Earth

—Blindness and Death of Galileo 85



Kepler the German Astronomer

—Succeeds Tycho as Mathematician to the Emperor Rudolph

—His description of the Eye

— He tries to explain the orbit of the planet Mars

—And by comparing Tycho’s tables with observation discovers his First and Second Law of the movements of the Planets

—His delight at Galileo’s discoveries

—Kepler’s Third Law

—Comparison of the labours of Tycho, Galileo, and Kepler 9 3

Francis Bacon, 1361-1626

—He teaches the true method of studying Science in his ‘ Novum Organum ‘

—Rene Descartes, 1596-1650

—He teaches that Doubt is more honest than Ignorant Assertion

—Willebrord Snellius discovers the Law of Refraction, 1621

—Explanation of this Law 101



Fabricius Aquapendente discovers Valves in the Veins

—Harvey’s discovery of the Circulation of the Blood

—Discovery of the Vessels which carry nourishment to the Blood

—Gaspard Asellius notices the Lacteals

—Pecquet discovers the Passage of the fluid to the Heart

—Riidbeck discovers the Lymphatics 108



Torricelli discovers the reason of Water rising in a Pump

—Uses Mercury to measure the Weight of the Atmosphere

—Makes the First Barometer

—M. Perrier, at Pascal’s suggestion, demonstrates variations in the pressure of the atmosphere

—Otto Gnericke invents the Air-pump

—Working of the Air-pump

— Guerickc proves the Pressure of the Atmosphere by the experiment of the Magdeburg Spheres

—He makes the first Electrical Machine

—Foundation of Royal Society of Ixmdon and other Academies of Science 114



Boyle’s Law of the Compressibility of Gases

—This same Law discovered independently by Marriotte

—Hooke’s theory of Air being the cause of Fire

—Boyle’s experiments with Animals under the Air-pump

—John Mayow, the greatest Chemist of the Seventeenth Century

—11 is experiments upon the Air used in Combustion

—Proves that the same portion is used in Respiration

—Proves that Air which has lost its Fire-air is Lighter

— Mayow’s ‘ Fire-air’ was Oxygen, and his Lighter Air Nitrogen

—He traces out the effect which Fire-air produces in Animals when Breathing 136
Malpighi first uses the Microscope to examine Living Structures
— He describes the Air-cells of the Lungs

—Watches the Circulation of the Blood

—Observes the Malpighian Layer in the Human Skin

— Describes the Structure of the Silkworm

— Leeuwenhoeck discovers Animalcules

—Grew and Malpighi discover the Cellular Structure of Plants

—The Stomates in Leaves

—They study the Germination of Seeds

—Ray and Willughby classify and describe Animals and Plants

—The Friendship of these two Men 134



42, Birth of Newton

—His Education

—1666, His three great Discoveries first occur to him

—Method of Fluxions and Differential Calculus

—First thought of the Theory of Gravitation

—Failure of his Results in Consequence of the Faulty Measurement of the size of the Earth

—1682, Hears of Picart’s new Measurement

—Works out the result correctly, and proves Gravitation

—Explanation of this Theory

—Establishes the law that Attraction varies inversely as the squares of the distance

—Explains the transmission of sound

—1687, Publishes the ‘ Principia ‘

—Some of the Problems dealt with in this Work 44
Transits of Mercury and Venus

—Kepler foretells their occurrence

—1631, Gassendi observes a transit of Mercury

—1639, Horrocks foretells and observes a Transit of Venus

—1676, Holley sees a Transit of Mercury, and it suggests to him a method for Measuring the Distance of the Sun

—1691-1716, Ualley describes this method to the Royal Society

—Explanation of nancy’s method

Newton’s Discovery of the Dispersion of Light

—Traces the amount of Refraction of each of the Coloured Rays

—Makes a Rotating Disc turning the colours of the Spectrum into White Light

—Reason why all Light passing through glass is not Coloured

—Mr. Chester More Hall discovers the Difference of Dispersive Power in Flint and Crown Glass

—Newton’s Papers destroyed by his pet dog

—Last years of Newton’s life 16 1

Roemer measures the Velocity of Light

—Newton’s Corpuscular Theory of Light

—Undulatory or Wave Theory proposed by Huyghens

—Invention of Cycloidal Pendulums by Huyghens

— Discovery of Saturn’s Ring

—Sound caused by Vibration of Air

—Light by Vibration of Ether

—Reasons why we see Light

—Reflection of Waves of Light

—Cause of Colour

—Refraction explained by the Undulatory Theory

—Mr. TyloHi Illustration of Refraction

—Double Refraction explained by Huyghens

—Polarization of Light not understood till the nineteenth century 172
Great spread of Science in the Eighteenth Century

—Advance of the Sciences relating to Living Beings

—Foundation of Leyden University in 15 74

—Boerhaave, Professor of Medicine at Leyden, 1701

—Foundation of Chemistry of organic compounds by Boerhaave

—Influence of Boerhaave upon the study of Medicine

—Belief of the Alchemists in ‘Vital Fluids’

—Boerhaave’s Experiments on the Juices of Plants

—Dr. Hales’s Experiments on Plants

—Boerhaave’s Analyses of Milk, Blood, etc.

—Great popularity of his Chemical Lectures 18 9

Childhood of Haller

—Foundation of the University of Gottingen in 1736

—Haller made Professor of Anatomy

—Halter’s Anatomical Plates

—He discovers the power of Contraction of the Muscles

—Rise of Comparative Anatomy

—John Hunter’s industry in Dissecting and Comparing the Structures of different Animals

—His Museum and the arrangement of his Collection

—Bonnet’s Experiments on Plants

—Experiments upon Animals by Bonnet and Spallanzani

—Regrowth of different parts when cut off

—Bonnet’s theory of Gradual Development of Plants and Animals

—Anatomical Works of Haller

—He discovers the power of the Muscles to contract 98
Birth and Early Life of Buffon and Linnaus compared

—Buffon’s Work on Natural History

—Daubenton wrote the Anatomical Part

—Buffon’s Books very interesting, but not always accurate

—He first worked out the Distribution of Animals

—Struggles of Linnaus with Poverty

—Mr. Clifford befriends him

—He becomes Professor at Upsala

—He was the first to give Specific Names to Animals and Plants

—Explanation of his Descriptions of Plants

—Use of the Linncean or Artificial System

—Afterwards superseded by the Natural System

—Linnxus first used accurate terms in describing Plants and Animals

—Character of Linnxus

—Sale of his Collection, and Chase by the Swedish Man-of-war 303

The Study of the Earth neglected during the Dark Ages

—Prejudices concerning the Creation of the World

—Attempts to Account for Buried Fossils

—Palissy, the Potter, first asserted that Fossil-shells were real Shells

—Scilla Work on the Shells of Calabria, 1670

—Woodward’s Description of Different Formations, 1695

—Lazzaro Moro one of the first to give a true explanation of the facts

—Abraham Werner lectures on Minesalogy and Geology, 1775

—Disputes between the Neptunists and Vulcanists

—Dr. Hutton first teaches that it is by the Study of the Present that we can understand the Past

—Theory of Hutton

— Sir J. Hall’s Experiments upon Melted Rocks

— Hutton discovers Granite Veins in Glen Tilt

—William Smith, the ‘Father of English Geologists

‘—His Geological Map of England 2



Birth of Modern Chemistry

—Discovery of ‘Fixed Air,’ or Carbonic Acid, by Black and Bergmann

—Working out of ‘ Chemical Affinity ‘ by Bergmann

—He tests Mineral Waters, and proves ‘Fixed Air’ to be an Acid

—Discovery of Hydrogen by Cavendish

—He investigates the Composition of Water

—Oxygen discovered by Priestley and Scheele

—Priestley’s Experiments

—He fails to see the true bearing of his Discovery

—His Political Troubles and Death

—Nitrogen described by Dr. Rutherford

—Lavoisier lays the Foundation of Modern Chemistry

—He destroys the Theory of  ‘Phlogiston’ by proving that Combustion and Respiration take up a Gas out of the Air

— Discovers the Composition of Carbonic Acid and the nature of the Diamond

—French School of Chemistry

—Death of Lavoisier………. 224

Doctrine of Latent Heat, taught by Dr. Black in 1760

—Water containing Ice remains always at 0° C, and Boiling Water at 100° C, however much Heat is added

—Black showed that the lost Heat is absorbed in altering the condition of the Water —Watt’s Application of the Theory of Latent Heat to the Steam-engine

—Early History of Steam-engines

—Newcomen’s Engine

—Watt invents the Separate Condenser

—Diagram of Watt’s Engine

—Difficulties of Watt and Boulton in introducing Steam-engines 240

Benjamin Franklin born, 1706

—His Early Life

—Du Faye discovers two kinds of Electricity

—Franklin proves that Electricity exists in all Bodies, and is only developed by Friction
—Positive and Negative Electricity

—Franklin draws down Electricity from the Sky

—Invents Lightning-conductors

— Discovery of Animal Electricity by Galvani

—Controversy between Galvani and Volta

—Volta proves that Electricity can be produced by the Contact of two Metals

—Electrical Batteries

—The Crown of Cups

—The Voltaic Pile 25 2

Calculation of musical Vibrations, Sauveur

—Experiments on Vibrations of Strings

—Bernoulli, Euler, Lagrange

—Four Conditions determining the pitch of a Stretched String

—The Octave

—Nodes and Segments in a Vibrating String

—Overtones or Harmonics


—Discovers Mode of Vibration of Metal and Glass Plates

—Vibration of Bells and Gongs

— Sand Figures produced by Vibration 263


Bradley and Delisle, Astronomers

—Aberration of the Fixed Stars

—Nutation of the Axis of the Earth, Delisle’s Method of Measuring the Transit of Venus

—Lagrange and Laplace

— Libration of the Moon accounted for by Lagrange

—Laplace works out the Long Inequality of Jupiter and Saturn

— Lagrange proves the Stability of the Orbits of the Planets

—Sir William Herschel constructs his own Telescopes

—Discovery of a New Planet

—Discovery of Binary Stars

—Herschel studies Star-clusters and Nebulae

—Theory of Nebula; being matter out of which Stars are made

—The Motion of our Solar System through Space

—Weight of the Earth determined by the Schehallion Experiment

—Summary of the Science of the Eighteenth Century 275

Difficulties of Contemporary History

—Discovery of Asteroids Hid Minor Planets between Mars and Jupiter

—Dr. Olbers suggests they may be fragments of a larger Planet

—Encke’s Comet, and the correction of the size of Jupiter and Mercury

—Biela’s Comet, noticed in 1826

—It divides into two Comets in 1845

— Irregular movements of Uranus

—Adams and Levcrrier calculate the position of an Unknown Planet

—Neptune found by these calculations in 1846

—A Survey of the whole Heavens made by Sir John Herschel

—His work in Astronomy

— Comets and Meteor-system 297

Discoveries concerning Light made in the Nineteenth Century

— Birth and History of Dr. Young

—He explains the Interference of Light

—Cause of Prismatic Colours in a Shadow

—And in a Soap-bubble

—Malus discovers the Polarization of Light caused by Reflection

—Birth and History of Fresnel

—Polarization of Light explained by Young and Fresnel

—Complex Vibrations of a Ray of Light

—How these Waves are reduced to two separate Planes in passing through Iceland-spar

—Sir David Brewster and M. Biot explain the colours produced by Polarization

—Fizeau and Foucault on Velocity of Light 31 1

IHistory of Spectrum Analysis

—Discovery of Heat-rays by Sir W. Herschel

—And of Chemical Rays by Ritter of Jena

—Photography first suggested by Davy and Wedgwood

—Carried out by Daguerte and Talbot

—Dark Lines in the Spectrum first observed by Wollaston

—Mapped by Fraunhofer

—Life of Fraunhofer

—He discovers that the Dark Lines are different in Sun-light and Star-light

— Experiments on the Spectra of different Flames

—Four new Metals discovered by Spectrum Analysis

—Artificial Dark Lines produced in the Spectrum by Sir David Brewster

—Bunsen and Kirchhoff explain the Dark Lines in the Solar Spectrum

—Metals in the Atmosphere of the Sun



—Jannsen and Lockyer on Red Prominences


—Huggins and Miller ex¬amine the Stars and Nebula; by Spectrum Analysis 325

Early Theories about Heat

—Count Rumford shows that Heat can be produced by Friction

—He makes Water boil by boring a Cannon

—Davy makes two pieces of Ice melt by Friction

— His conclusion about Heat

—How ‘Latent Heat’ is explained on the theory that Heat is a kind of Motion

—Dr. Mayer suggests the Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of licit

—Dr. Joule’s Experiments on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

—Dr. Hint’s Experiments on the conversion of Heat into Motion

—Proof of the Indestructibility and Conservation of Energy

—Theory of dissipation of Energy .34 1

Oersted discovers the effect of Electricity upon a Magnet

— Electro-Magnetism

—Experiments by Ampere on Magnetism and Electricity

— Ampere’s Early Life

— Direction of the North Pole of the Magnet depends on the course of the Electric Currents

— Lines of Magnetic Force between two Electric Wires

— Electro-Magnets made by means of an Electric Current

— Arago magnetises a Steel Bar with an ordinary Electrical Machine

—Faraday discovers the Rotatory Movement of Magnets and Electrified Wires

—Produces an Electric Current by means of a Magnet

—Seebeck discovers Thermo-Electricity, or the production of Electricity by Heat

—Schwabe discovers Periodicity of the Spots on the Sun

— Sabine suggests a connection between Sun-spots and Magnetic phenomena

—This proved in 1859 by Observations of Carrington and Hodgson

—Electric Telegraph






—Cowpcr’s Telegraph

—The Telephone 355


Davy discovers that Nitrous Oxide produces Insensibility


—Safety-lamp 1815

—Nicholson and Carlisle discover Decomposition of Water, 1800

—Davy discovers the effect of Electricity upon Chemical Affinity

—Faraday’s Discoveries in Electrolysis

—Indestructibility of Force

—Various Modes discovered of Decomposing Substances

—John Dalton, chemist

— Law of Definite Proportions

—Law of Multiple Proportions

— Dalton’s Atomic Theory

—The Study of Organic Chemistry

— Liebig, the great teacher in Organic Chemistry 378

The Organic Sciences are too difficult to follow out in detail

— Jussieu’s Natural System of Plants

—Sprengel on fertilisation of Plants by insects

—Robert Brown on embryological botany

—Sir W. Hooker

—Goethe proves the Metamorphosis of Plants 396

Humboldt studies the Lines of Average Temperature on the Globe

—Extends our knowledge of Physical Geography

—Writes the ‘Cosmos’

—Death of Humboldt

— The three Naturalists, Lamarck, Cuvier, and Geoffrey St.-Hilaire

—Cuvier begins the Museum of Comparative Anatomy

—Lamarck’s History of Invertebrate Animals

—G. St.-Hilaire brings Natural History Collections from Egypt

—Lamarck on the Development of Animals

—G. St.-Hilaire on ‘Homology,’ or the similarity in the parts of different animals

—Cuvier’s ‘ Regne Animal’ and his Classification of Animals

—Cuvier on the Perfect Agreement between the Different Parts of an animal

—He Studies and Restores the Remains of Fossil Animals

—His ‘ Ossemens Fossiles’

—Death of Cuvicr

—Von Baer on the Study of Embryology

—Parker and Balfour on Embryology 408

Prejudices which retarded the study of Geology

— Sir Charles Lycll traces out the Changes going on now

—Mud carried down by the Ganges

—Eating away of Sea-coasts

—Eruption of Skaptar Jokul

—Earthquake of Calabria

—Rise and Fall of Land

—’ Principles of Geology’ published in 1830

—Murchison on stratigraplucal geology

— Louis Agassiz

— De Saussure’s Study of Glaciers

—Agassiz on Europe and North America being once covered with Ice

—Boucher de Perthes on Ancient Flint Implements

—M’Enery on Flint Implements in Kent’s Cavern, with Bones of Extinct Animals

—Swiss Lake-dwellings

—’ Antiquity of Man’ 426

Facts which led Naturalists to believe that the different kinds of Animals arc descended from Common Ancestors

—All Animals of each class formed on one Plan

—Embryological Structure

— Living and Fossil Animals of a country resemble each other

— Gradual Succession of Animals on the Globe

—Links between different species

— Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

— Wallace worked out the tome Theory independently

—Sketch of the Theory of Natural Selection

—Selection of Animals by Man

—Selection by Natural Causes

—Difficulties in Natural History which are explained by this Theory 441



Advantages now possessed by Students of Science

—Improvements in Astronomical Instruments

—Discovery of Satellites of Mars

—Probable Discovery of Intramercurial Planets

—Travelling stars studied by the Spectroscope

—Leverrier’s Analysis of the Orbits of the Major Planets

—Molecular Theory of Gases

— Researches of Sir W. Thomson and Clerk-Maxwell

—Liquefaction of the Permanent Gases by Pictet and Cailletct

— Crookes’ Discovery of Ultra-gaseous State of Matter

—The present state of Biological Science

—Geographical distribution

—Carnivorous Plants

—Fertilisation of Plants

—Foundation of new Zoological Classifications

—Discoveries of Fossil Animals by Professor Marsh

— Links thus afforded in the Animal Series

—Concluding Remarks on the History of Science  456

A Short History of Hampton Court – List of Illustrations

 32 Cardinal Wolsey’s Arms as Archbishop of York

Henry VIII. at the Age of Forty-five

Great Elm Tree in the Home Park known as the ” Two Sisters,” or ” King Charles’s Swing
3 Bird’s-Eye View of Hampton Court, showing the extent of Wolsey’s Palace
7 West Front of Wolsey’s Palace
9 Gable. From Wolsey’s West Front
II Entrance to Katharine of Arragon’s Rooms
13 The Master Carpenter’s Court on the North Side of the First Court of Wolsey’s Palace
15 Entrance to the North Wing of the Palace, leading to the Offices .

17 The First Green Court, with the Cupolas restored
21 Arms of Cardinal Wolsey
23 Cardinal Wolsey’s Closet
24 One of Cardinal Wolsey’s Rooms
25 Decorative Frieze in Cardinal Wolsey’s Closet
26 Oriel Window in Wolsey’s First Green Court
27 Wolsey’s oak-panelled Room in the Clock Court
31 Cardinal Wolsey in Bed
33 Cardinal Wolsey
39 Wolsey’s Low Gallery, on the Ground Floor of the South Range, in the First Court
41 Cardinal Wolsey in Progress
43 Seizure of the Cardinal’s Goods
51 Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, sending tokens of Goodwill to the sick Cardinal
53 Lead Water-spout, put up by Henry VIII
57 Back Court, by the Great Kitchen
65 View of one of the old Offices in Henry VIII.’s Palace … .

67 The Great Kitchen
71 Entrance to Henry VIII.’s Cellars under the Hall and Great Watching Chamber
73 Old Lattice Window, with Ventilators of perforated Lead .. .

75 Anne Boleyn’s Gateway
78 Anne Boleyn
79 Exterior of the Great Hall. From the Clock Court
81 Great Bay Window on the Dais in the Great Hall
83 The Great Hall. From the Dais
85 Jane Seymour
87 View of the old East Front of Hampton Court Palace, as finished by Henry VIII
The Chapel
91 Carrying of Prince Edward to the Font
92 The Chapel Doorway
93 The Clock Court, as it appeared in the reign of Henry VIII. . .

95 The Ghost of Mrs. Penn, Edward VI. ‘s Nurse
99 The Chapel Court, as seen from Prince Edward’s (Edward VI.) Lodgings
101 View from the River Thames of the old Palace of Hampton Court, as finished by Henry VIII.
102 Henry VIII. and his Council
105 The Haunted Gallery
109 Henry VIII. ‘s Private Stairs in the Clock Court, leading to his Privy Chamber
no Henry VIII. playing on the Lute ; with his jester, Will Somers, singing
in Edward VI
113 The Duke of Somerset
115 Doorway of the Great Gate-house
116 The Great Gate-house, restored
117 Edward VI. and his Council
119 The Prison, so-called, in the Round Kitchen Court
121 Philip II. of Spain
123 View of the Chimneys of the Great Kitchen, Tennis Court Lane .

125 View of Hampton Court Palace from the Thames in the reign of Queen Mary
129 Queen Mary
131 ” My Lord Robert Dudley’s Picture ”
141 Round Kitchen Court
145 Carved Stone on Queen Elizabeth’s Window
148 Foot of the Great Hall Stairs
149 Old Leaden Water-spouts on Queen Elizabeth’s Stables . . .

151 The Fish Court
155 The Dungeon
159 Bay Window in the Great Watching Chamber
165 The Screens in the Great Hall
167 Entrance to the Buttery under the Pantry and Great Hall . . .

171 James I. out Hunting, ” Taking the Assay ”
189 King James 1
197 Charles I
205 Family of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
213 Charles I. and his Queen dining in Public
215 View of the North of the Palace in Tennis Court Lane … .

223 The Old Pond Garden
229 Parapet of the Great Hall as seen from the Roof
241 Mrs. Cromwell, ” the Lady Protectress ”
247 Old East Front of Hampton Court in the time of Charles II. .

269 Back Stairs to the Great Hall
279 Bird’s-Eye View of Hampton Court in the reign of William III. .

297 The Old Greenhouse, with an American Agave in flower, and Queen Mary’s Orange Trees
303 Queen Mary’s Bower

East Front and Great Fountain Garden
307 The South Front of William III.’s New Palace
309 The Colonnade
311 The Fountain Court
313 Pediment of a Window in the South Front, surmounted by William and Mary’s Coat-of-Arms
317 Screen and Gate of Wrought Iron formerly in the Gardens at Hampton Court
319 The King’s Great Staircase
325 The Flower-Pot Gate
327 The Maze
329 The King’s Guard Chamber
331 King William III.’s State Bedchamber
335 44 The Rape of the Lock”
357 The Queen’s State Bedchamber, showing the Ceiling painted by Sir James Thornhill in 1716
361 The Pavilions belonging to the Bowling Green at the end of the Terrace Walk at Hampton Court
365 View, looking eastward, of the Diagonal Walks in the Great Fountain Garden in the time of George II
377 The Pavilion, Hampton Court Park, the Seat of H.R.H. the Duke of Kent
386 North-East Angle of the old Palace, with the Gateway into Lady Mornington’s Garden
389 44 Purr Corner”
391 ” The Push ”
401 The House or Home Park and Long Canal
403 The Privy Garden
405 View, looking east, of the Long Canal and Great Avenue in the House or Home Park

Making the best use of your time.

When we come across a book with a well recognised ‘chronology’ like the example below we extract it while leaving the original in place. Later in the workflow we load the tables into the excellent “BeeDocuments Timeline” The example below is copied from “A Short History of Greek Literature”

All dates for Greek events earlier than the middle of the seventh century B.C. are legendary or conjectural.


776 Traditional date of the First Olympiad.

680 CALLINUS of Ephesus, elegiac poet.

676 ? TERPANDER of Lesbos, musician and melic poet.

650 ARCHILOCHUS of Paros, iambic, elegiac, and melic poet. ALCMAN of Sparta, choral melic poet.

648 Eclipse of the sun mentioned by Archilochus (see p. 85).

630 MIMNERMUS of Colophon, elegiac poet.

625 SEMONIDES of Amorgos, iambic poet.
ARION of Lesbos, choral melic poet.

600 ALCAEUS of Lesbos, melic poet.
SAPPHO of Lesbos, melic poet.
STESICHORUS of Himera, choral melic poet.

599 SOLON of Athens, elegiac poet, 639-599.

590 THALES of Miletus, philosopher.

570 ANAXIMANDER of Miletus, philosopher.

550 ANAXIMENES of Miletus, philosopher.
CADMUS of Miletus, logographer.
PHERECYDES of Syros, philosopher.

546 CYRUS takes Sardis. Fall of Croesus.

540 PHOCYLIDES of Miletus, elegiac poet.
DEMODOCUS of Leros, elegiac poet.
ANACREON of Teos, melic poet.
HIPPONAX of Ephesus, choliambic satirist.
IBYCUS of Rhegium, melic poet.
XENOPHANES of Colophon, philosopher and elegiac poet.
1 The date given is the JloruU, placed approxiroately at forty years of age, to which are added, when known, the dates of birth and death. Authors whose century is unknown are omitted.

534 First tragic contest at the City Dionysia, in Athens.
THESPIS of Attica, tragic poet.

530 PYTHAGORAS of Samos, philosopher.

520 THEOGNIS of Megara, elegiac poet.
LASUS of Hermione, choral melic poet.
CORINNA of Boeotia, choral melic poet.

516 SIMONIDES of Ceos, choral melic poet, 556-468.

510 Democracy established at Athens.

508 The Attic State assumes control of the tragic choruses.

500 HERACLEITUS of Ephesus, philosopher.
HECATAEUS of Miletus, logographer. CHOERILUS of Athens, tragic poet. PRATINAS of the Peloponnesus, tragic poet.

494 Fall of Miletus. PHRYNICHUS of Athens, tragic poet.

490 Battle of Marathon.
PANYASIS of Halicarnassus, epic poet.

485 AESCHYLUS of Athens, tragic poet, 525-456.

480 EPICHARMUS of Cos, comic poet.
PINDAR of Thebes, choral melic poet.
Battle of Salamis.

479 Battle of Plataea.

475 PARMENIDES of Elea, philosopher and poet.

468 BACCHYLIDES of Ceos, choral melic poet.

460 CHIONIDES of Athens, comic poet.
MAGNES of Athens, comic poet.
ANAXAGORAS of Clazomenae, philosopher.

456 SOPHOCLES of Athens, tragic poet, 496-405.

450 PHRYNIS of Lesbos, musician.
GORGIAS of Leontini, sophist and rhetorician. CRATES of Athens, comic poet. ZENO of Elea, philosopher. EMPEDOCLES of Agrigentum, poet and philosopher.

444 HERODOTUS of Halicarnassus, historian. PROTAGORAS of Abdera, sophist and grammarian. CRATINUS of Athens, comic poet.

440 ANTIPHON of Athens, orator. EURIPIDES of Athens, tragic poet. MELISSUS of Samos. philosopher.

440 SOPHRON of Syracuse, writer of mimes.

435 LEUCIPPUS of Abdera ?, philosopher.

431 Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.
PERICLES of Athens, statesman and orator.

430 HIPPIAS of Elis, sophist.
HELLANICUS of Lesbos, historian.
PHERECRATES of Athens, comic poet.
THUCYDIDES of Athens, historian.
HIPPOCRATES of Cos, writer on medicine.

429 SOCRATES of Athens, philosopher, 469-399.

425 THRASYMACHUS of Chalcedon, sophist and rhetorician.

420 DEMOCRITUS of Abdera, philosopher.
PRODICUS of Ceos, sophist.

415 The Sicilian Expedition.
AGATHON of Athens, tragic poet.
EUPOLIS of Athens, comic poet.
CRITIAS of Athens, poet and statesman.
ARISTOPHANES of Athens, comic poet.

412 THEODORUS of Byzantium, rhetorician.

411 Revolution of the Four Hundred.

406 Death of Euripides.

405 PLATO of Athens, comic poet.

404 ANTIMACHUS of Colophon, epic poet.

403 End of the Peloponnesian War.

400 TIMOTHEUS of Miletus, citharoede.
ANDOCIDES of Athens, orator. LYSIAS of Athens, rhetorician and speechwright.

399 Death of Socrates.
EUCLEIDES of Megara, philosopher.

395 ISOCRATES of Athens, rhetorician and publicist.

394 XENOPHON of Athens, historian.

387 PLATO of Athens, philosopher, 427-347.

380 ANTISTHENES of Athens, philosopher.
ISAEUS of Chalcis, speechwright.
ARISTIPPUS of Cyrene, philosopher.

368 ANTIPHANES of Asia Minor ?, comic poet.

362 DIOGENES of Sinope, philosopher.

354 ALEXIS of Thurii, comic poet

350 EPHORUS of Cyme, historian.

350 THEOPOMPUS of Chios, historian. LYCURGUS of Athens, orator.

349 AESCHINES of Athens, orator.
HYPEREIDES of Athens, orator.

344 ARISTOTLE of Stageira, philosopher, 384-322.

343 DEMOSTHENES of Athens, orator, 383-322.

338 Battle of Chaeronea.

337 DIPHILUS of Sinope, comic poet.

332 THEOPHRASTUS of Lesbos, philosopher.

331 Foundation of Alexandria.

323 Death of Alexander.

320 PHILEMON of Soli, comic poet.
DEINARCHUS of Corinth, speechwright.

305 TIMAEUS of Tauromenium, historian.

302 EPICURUS of Samos, philosopher.
MENANDER of Athens, comic poet.

300 DEMETRIUS of Phalerum, orator.
ZENO of Citium, philosopher. DOURIS of Samos, historian.

291 CLEANTHES of Assos, philosopher.

290 HEGESIAS of Magnesia, rhetorician.
PHILETAS of Cos, elegiac poet.
ASCLEPIADES of Samos, melic poet and epigrammatist.

280 ? ISYLLUS of Epidaurus, choral melic poet.
LYCOPHRON of Chalcis, epic and tragic poet.

276 LEONIDAS of Tarentum, epigrammatist.

275 THEOCRITUS of Syracuse, bucolic poet.

270 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, Alexandrian epic and elegiac poet

260 ARATUS of Soli, writer of didactic epic.
HERODAS of Cos, writer of mimes.

236 ERATOSTHENES of Cyrene. librarian and encyclopaedist.

234 EUPHORION of Chalcis, epic poet.

222 RHIANUS of Crete, epic poet.

180 FNICANDER of Colophon, epic poet.

180 CRATES of Mallus, Homeric critic.
ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, critic and grammarian.

170 POLYBIUS of Megalopolis, historian.

150 MOSCHUS of Syracuse, bucolic poet
BION of Smyrna, bucolic poet
150 MELEAGER of Gadara, epigrammatist and anthologist.

55 PHILODEMUS of Gadara, Epicurean and epigrammatist.

40 DIODORUS of Sicily, historian.

20 STRABO of Amasia, historian and geographer.

8 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus, historian and critic.

A.D. 50 CRINAGORAS of Mitylene, epigrammatist. yy JOSEPH us of Jerusalem, historian.

80 Dio CHRYSOSTOMUS of Prusa, sophist and lecturer.

90 PLUTARCH of Chaeronea, moralist and biographer.

100 EPICTETUS of Phrygia, philosopher.

130 APPIAN of Alexandria, historian.
ARRIAN of Nicomedia, historian.

140 HERODES ATTICUS of Athens, sophist.

150 PAUSANIAS of Lydia ?, topographer.

161 MARCUS AURELIUS, emperor and philosopher.

165 LUCIAN of Samosata, sophist and satirist.

169 ARISTEIDES of Mysia, sophist.

180 OPPIAN of Cilicia, writer of didactic epic.

180 ? ALCIPHRON, epistolographer and sophist.

180 CASSIUS DIO of Nicaea, historian.

210 PHILOSTRATUS of Athens, sophist and biographer.

220 AELIAN of Praeneste, sophist.1

225 ? ATHENAEUS of Naucratis, grammarian and writer on minor antiquities.

225 ? BABRIUS, writer of fables in choliambics.

244 PLOTINUS of Lycopolis, Neo-Platonist philosopher.

250 ? DIOGENES LAERTIUS, biographer.

330 Seat of Empire removed to Byzantium.

350 THEMISTIUS of Paphlagonia, sophist and Aristotelian commentator.

354 LIBANIUS of Antioch, sophist and epistolographer.

355 HIMERIUS of Prusa, sophist.
1 Aelian was an Italian who never so much as visited Greece, though he preferred to write in Greek his anecdotes of the philosophers, of animals, and of the persons, important and insignificant, whom he gathered into his Medley 0f History ( Varia Historid). This has survived, together with the treatise On Animals and a number of Letters of dubious authenticity. It is only by convention that one includes their author’s name among those who have contributed to Greek literature.

371 JULIAN of Constantinople, emperor and sophist.

380 ? QUINTUS of Smyrna, epic poet.

386 EUNAPIUS of Sardis, sophist and biographer.

390 ? HELIODORUS of Phoenicia, writer of romance.

400 ? NONNUS, epic poet.

450 PROCLUS of Lycia, philosopher.

500 ? MUSAEUS, epic poet.

529 Closing of the schools of philosophy by Justinian.

540 AGATHIAS, epigrammatist.

550 PSTOBAEUS JOANNES of Stobi in Macedonia, anthologist and collector of extracts.

Recognising a Footnote

 We don’t always get results as good as this when recognising books with ‘footnotes’ like the example below from “A Short History of Freethought”. Migrating the printed footnote to mouse-over popup is a distinct possibility with this title.

1 -Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 5th ed. 1871, i, 280, note.

2 -Life of Mr. Yukichi Fukuzawa, Tokyo, 1902, pp. 48-53, .56-69.

3 -See Tylor, Primitive Culture, 3rd ed. i, 71, as to savage conservatism in handicraft; but compare his Researches into the Early History of Mankind, 1865, p. 160, as to countervailing forces.

4 -See the cases cited by Peschel, The Races of Man, Eng. tr. 1876, pp. 247-8, in particular that of Rastus, the last pagan Lapp in Europe, who quarrelled with his fetish stone for killing his reindeer in revenge for the withholding of its customary offering of brandy, and “immediately embraced Christianity.” Compare the case of King Rum Bahadur of Nepaul, who cannonaded his Gods. Spencer, Study of Sociology, pp. 301-2. Also the anecdote cited by Spencer (Id. p. 160) from Sir R. Burton’s Goa, p. 167. Here there is no disbelief, no reflection, but simple resentment.

5 -E.g., in the first chapter of Saint-Simon’s Memoires, the account of the French soldiers who at the siege of Namur burned and broke the images of Saint Medard for sending so much rain. Cp. Irvine, Letters on Sicily, 1813, p. 72.

Directions to the Binder

Certain books in the Ultrapedia Library contain ‘removable plates’. The book below “A Narrative of  Travels in Northern Africa” is an example of just such a book. The binder (usually the librarian or bookseller) would mount any removable plates like we would mount printed photographs in a photo album.

Inevitably some of the removable prints have been lost over the years leaving only the legend. Without the plate itself a legend is just one more dead-end search. Hence we remove them and wait for a more complete original.

Map to face the title-page.

Costume of Tripoli

7 Tripoli Costume

17 Triumphal Arch

18 Arabs exercising
46 Bonjem
67 Sand Wind .
70 Piper and Dancer
75 Castle of Morzouk
98 Tuarick in a Leather Shirt

110 Tuarick of Ghiaat
118 Costume of Soudan

161 Negresses of Soudan
182 Tibboo Woman—Full Dress
225 Tibboo Gatrone

285 Tuarick on his Maherry
293 Camel conveying a Bride
299 Slave Kaffll

Preparing the V4s – remove Table of Contents.

We remove the ‘Table of Contents’ (TOC) to cut down on page numbering discrepancies. ‘Chapterised’ TOCs like the one below from “A Short History of Chemistry” have fewer numerical entries to remove making it easier for us to rebuild the TOC later in the workflow.


AMONG THE ANCIENTS. Derivation of Name.—Mysticism.—Manuscripts and Original Sources. — Destruction of Early Writings. — Chinese Sources.—-Aryan. —Egyptian.— Chaldean. — Jewish. — Degree of Knowledge 1-7

ANCIENT ALCHEMISTS. Hermes. — Inscription of Hermes.—Hermetic Philosophers. — Demok¬ritos of Abdera. — The Greeks and Natural Science.—Mutability of Nature. — Theories of the Greek Philosophers. — Aristotle. — The Four-element Theory.— Greek Contributions to Science 7-12

ALCHEMISTS IN THE EARLY PART OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA. Zosimus the Panopolite. — Africanus the Syrian. — Synesius. —Olympiodorus. — Breaking up of the Alexandrian School.—Transference of Learning to Arabia 12-15

CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENTS. Apparatus.— Metallurgy. — Minerals and Salts.—Glass-making and Pottery. — Dyeing and Tanning. — Soaps, Medicaments, etc. . . 15-19


THE ARABIANS. Science in the East. — Science in Spain. — Progress made by the Ara¬bians. — Geber. —His Writings.—Nature of his Work. — Views as to Sulphur and Arsenic. — Views as to Transmutation. — Apparatus. — New Substances known to Him. — Avicenna. — Other Arabic Chemists 20-25

THE ARABISTS. Characteristics of the Age. — Albertus Magnus. —Writings. — Work and Theories. — Thomas Aquinas. — Roger Bacon. — Writings and Work. — Discoveries.—Views as to Transmutation.—Arnold Villanovanus. — Work and Writings. — Raymond Lully. — Character of his
THE ALCHEMISTS PROPER. Growth in the Belief in Transmutation. — Confirmations of the Belief. — Traditions as to Gold-making. — Theories as to the Origin of the Metals.
— Legal Prosecution of the Gold-makers. — Mystical Language.— Sharpers and Charlatans. — Adepts. — Universal Medicine. — Other Aims of the Alchemists  35-40


THE PARACELSISTS. Paracelsus. — Character of his Work. — As a Physician. — As a Chemist. — Contributions to Pharmacy. — Extracts from his Writings. — His Followers. — Libavius. — Agricola 41-46

THE IATRO-CHEMISTS. Van Helmont. — His Theories. — Study of the Gases.— Views on Transmutation. — Ideas of Physiology. — Sennert. — Glauber. — Theory of Double Decomposition. — Suggestions for Industrial Improvements.
— Sylvius. — Mistakes of the Iatro-chemists 46-50

THE PHLOGISTIC CHEMISTS. Phlogiston Theory. — General Characteristics. — Boyle. — Character of his Work. — Experiments upon Air. — Constitution of Matter. — Improvements in Qualitative Analysis.—Kunckel. —His Work.— Becher. — His Theories. — Homberg. — Lemery. — Stahl. — Character and Work. — Theory of Combustion. — General Chemical Work. — Hoffmann. — Boerhaave. — Overthrow of Alchemical Notions. — Writings. — Other Phlogistics in Germany. — Phlogistics in France. — Macquer 50-62

PHLOGISTIC CHEMISTS IN ENGLAND. Hooke’s Theory of Combustion. — Black. — Causticity of Lime and the Alkalies. — Latent Heat and other Work. — Cavendish. — Discovery of Hydrogen. — Analysis of the Atmosphere. — Priestley. — Invention of the Pneumatic Trough. — Emigration to America. — Character of his Work. — Discovery of Oxygen. — Relations of Plants and Animals to the Atmosphere. — Imperfect Analytical Work. — Views as to Combustion.   Other Researches 62-68

PHLOGISTIC CHEMISTS IN SWEDEN. Bergman. — Improvement in Analysis. — Views as to the Atmosphere. — Theoretical Views. — Scheele. — His Discoveries. — Discovery of Oxygen. — Theoretical Conclusions 68-72


THE REVOLUTION IN CHEMISTRY. Lavoisier. — Character of his Work. — Experiments upon Combustion.
— Composition of the Atmosphere. — Professional Character. — Compo¬sition of Water.—Theory as to Acids.— Transmutation of Water refuted.

— Indestructibility of Matter. — Relation of Plants and Animals to the Atmosphere. — Nature of Heat. — Investigation of Organic Substances.

Constancy of Proportions. — Bert hoi let. — Views of Affinity. — Dalton. ‘
— Atoms. — Proust. — Richter. — Law of Multiple Proportions. —- The Atomic Theory and its Extensions 84-90

VOLUME RELATIONS. Dalton’s Rules. — Gay Lussac. — Law of Volumes. — Difficulties and Objections. — Avogadro’s Theory. — Ampere. — Wollaston’s Equivalents. — Prout’s Hypothesis 90-94

THE NEW ELEMENTS. Klaprotb. — Proust. — Sir Humphry Davy. — Decompositions by Means of Electricity. — Decomposition of Water. — Decomposition of the Alka¬lies. — Composition of Muriatic Acid and the Nature of Acids. — New Theory of Acids. — The Alkalizing Principle. — Davy’s Later Life, 94-101

THE BERZELIAN THEORIES. Berzelius. — Character of his Work. — Analytical and Experimental Work. — Determination of the Atomic Weights. — Introduction of Symbols. — Dualistic Theory. — Electro-chemical Theory . . 101-107

IMPROVED METHODS AND NEW LAWS. New Appliances. — The Laboratory of Berzelius. — Apparatus. — Law of Dulong and Petit. — Law of Mitscherlich. — Corrected List of Atomic Weights. — Electro-chemical Equivalents. — Work of Dumas on Atomic Weights. — Vapor Densities. — Unsatisfactory Condition of Chemical Theory. — Gmelin’s Views. — Need of New Support for the Atomic Theory 108-114



Lavoisier’s Views. — Organic Substances as the Product of Life Force.

— Views of Berzelius. — Theory of Compound Radicals. — Isomerism. —  Synthesis of Urea. — Organic Analysis. — Classification of Organic -Sub¬stances.— Extension of Electro-chemical and Radical Theories. — The Radical of Benzoic Acid. — Changes in the Radical Theory. — The Com¬pound Radicals. — Atomic Theory Confirmed. — Overthrow of Dualism. — Substitution Theory. — Trichloracetic Acid. — Unitary Theory. — Nucleus Theory. — Type Theory. — Copulas and Conjugated Com¬pounds. — Kolbe’s Remodelling of the Radical Theory . . . 115-128
THE SATURATION CAPACITY OF THE ATOMS OR VALENCE. Frankland’s Work upon the Organo-metallic Bodies. — Polybasic Acids.
— Atomicity of the Complex Radicals. — Introduction of the Idea of Valence. — Deduction of Valence from Inorganic Compounds. — Prog¬ress made by the Valence Theory 128-131

PROGRESS IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Discovery of New Elements. — The Halogen Acids. — Allotropism. — New Acids and Salts. — The Permanent Gases 131-133

BLENDING OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. Graham’s Work. — Diffusion Experiments. — Colloids and Crystalloids.
— The Spectroscope. — Spectrum Analysis. — Polariscope and Microscope 133-137

STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY. New Systems of Classification. — Atomic Chains. — Physical Isomerism and Stereo-chemistry. — Atomic Linkage 137-139

THE ATOMIC WEIGHT8. Confusion in the Sixth Decade. — Dumas’ Revision of the Atomic Weights. — The Work of Stas. — Continued Confusion of Standards. — Cannizzaro’s Revision.—-Numerical Relations between the Atomic Weights. — Newland’s Law of Octaves. — Mendele’eff’s Periodic Law.
— Importance of the Law. — Primal Elements 140-144



ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. Followers of Berzelius. — Work of Fresenius. — Associated Methods. 146-148

AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. The Humus Theory. — The New Theory of Liebig. — Field Trials. — Other Investigators. — Experiment Stations 148-151

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. The Problems to be solved. — Condition of the Science. — Fermentation and Decay Processes. — Discovery of the Nature of Ferments . 151-153

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. Molecular Weight Determinations. — Determination by means of Freezing-Points and Boiling-Points. — Electro-chemistry. — Electro-chemical Analysis. — Electro-metallurgy. — Thermo-chemistry. — Photo-chemistry. — Early photo-chemical Observations 153-157

Pages we remove to make V4s

Authors could help defray printing costs by carrying adverts for other books printed by the publisher. We remove these pages as we are making the V4 of a book as they lead to ‘dead-end searches’ Although these adverts are extraneous for a search engine, they are useful in creating a ready-made bibliographic links. The ‘cover price’ is useful to bibliographers curious about the original price of the books listed.

The following advert is from “A Short History of Astronomy”


THE USE AND ABUSE OF MONEY. By W. Cunningham. Not, $1.00.

THE FINE ARTS. By 6. Baldwin Brown. Net, $1.00.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE BEAUTIFUL. Being Outlines of the History of Aesthetics. By William Knight. Net, $1.00.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE BEAUTIFUL. Being its Theory and its Relation to the Arts. By William Knight. Net, $1.00.

Net, $1.00.

THE LITERATURE OF FRANCE. By H. G. Keene. Net. $1.00.

THE REALM OF NATURE. An Outline of Physiography. By Hugh R. MilL Net, $1.50.

THE ELEMENTS OF ETHICS. By John H. Muirhead. Net. $1.00.

THE STUDY OF ANIMAL LIFE. By T. Arthur Thomson. Net, $1.50.

THE EARTH’S HISTORY. An Intioduction to Modem Geology. By R. 0. Roberts. Net. $1.50.

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SENSES. By John G. McKen¬drick and William Snodgrass. Net, $1.50.

CHAPTERS IN MODERN BOTANY. By Patrick Geddes. Net, $1.25.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By C. E. Mallet. Net, $1.00.



PERICLES. By A. J. Grant. Net, $1.25.

THE JACOBEAN POETS. By Edmund Gosse. Net. $1.00.


A SHORT HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY. By Arthur Berry. Net, $1.50.