Pages we remove to make V4s

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The following advert is from “A Short History of Astronomy”

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Exotic Species list for linking to Wikispecies

From “A Short History of Aryan Medical Science” Notwithstanding a small amount of spell-checking, this list is almost ready for linking into Wikispecies.   Descriptions of early Indian Materia Media is a bonus.

1     CHHEDANA (Laxative), as Marichi (l’i’/» r t/rum).
2    DAHAPRASHAMANA (Antipyrotic), as Ushwa Andropogon nardus).
11.  DAMBHA (Escharotic), as Bhallat;ika (Semi¬carpus Anacardiwm),
12. DEEPANEEYA (Stomachic), as Pippalimoola Piper longum).
13. GARBHASRAYI (Ecbolic), as Grinjana (Daucus Carota).
14. GRAHI (Carminative and Exsiccative), as Jeeraka (Cuminum Cyminum).
15. IIIKKANIGRAHA (Antisingultus), as Shathi Hedychium spicatum).
16. JVARHARA (Antipyretic), as Peelu (Scdvadora mdiea),
17. KAFAHARA (Antiphlegmagogue), as Bibhee¬taka (Terminalia bellerica).
IS. KAFAKARA (Phlegmagogue), as Ikshu (Sac¬charum officinarum).
19. KANUL ottNA (Antipsoric), as Chandana (San¬t’llum album).
20. KANDITRA (Rubefacient), as Kapikachhu Mucuna pruriens),
21. KANTHYA (Expectorant), as Brihati (Solarium ).
22. KARSHYAKARA (Antifat), as Gavedhu (a kind of corn).
23. KRIMIGHNA (Anthelmintic), as Vidanga Embelia ribes).
24. KRIMIKRIT (Vermiparous), as Matha (Phaseo¬lus aconitifolius).
25. KUSHTAGHNA (Antiscorbutic), as Haridra Curcuma Zedoaria).
26. LALAGHNA (Antisialagogue), as .Jatifala Myristica rnoschata).
27. LALOTPADAKA (SiaJagogue), as Akalakarabha Spilanihes oleracea).
28. LEKHANA (Liquefacient), as Vacha (Acorus Calamus).
29. MADAKA (Inebrient), as Dhattura (Datura Stramonium).
30. MOOTRASANGRAHANA (Anuretic), as Pippalachhala (Cortex Ficus religiosa).
31. MOOTRAVIRECHANEEYA (Diuretic), as Kasha Poa cynosuroides).
32. NIDRAHARA (Antihypnotic), as Shigrubeeja Moringa pterygosperma).
33. NIDRAKARA (Hypnotic), as Kakajangha Capparis sepiaria).
34. NIROMAKARA (Depilatory), as Rala (Shorea robusta).
35. PIITAHARA (Antii holeric), as Kamala (A ‘in sj>trinsum).
36. PITTAKARA (Cholagogue), as Tvak (Cinnamo¬7/vim Cassia).
37. Pi: M B I H A IANA (Anecbolic), as Vishnukranta ( /•>.»/ruins Llrsiitus),
38. PRAMATHI (Antiphysical), as Hingu (Nar¬thex A la).
30. I’I:-AVAKA (Parturifacient), as Beejpura Citrus acid”).
40. PKATIVASA (Antidromic), as Karpoora Camphora     ojficinarum).
41. PURISHASANORAHANA (Astringent), as Pri¬angu (Panicum miliaceum).
42. RASWAXA (Rejuvenescent), as Guggula Amyris pentaphyll”).
43. RECHANA (Hydragogue), as Trivrita (Ipo¬mcea Terj>< titnm).
44. ROHANA (Epulotic), as Tila (Sesamum m).
45. SAMMOHANA (Anajsthetic), as Madya (Vina medicata).
46. BAM8HODHAKA (Emetic and Purgative), as evadali (Luffit echinata).
47. BANKO UANA (Constringent), as Mayofala cws infectoria),
48. SANJEEVASTHAPANA (Restorative), as Jata¬mansi (Nardostachys jatamansi).
49. SHAMANEEYA (Calmative), as Amrita (Coc¬cuius cordifolius).
50. SHEETAPRASHAMANA (Antalgide), as Agaru Aquilaria agallochum).
51. SHIROVIRECHANA (Sternutatory), as Agastya Agati grandiflora).
52. SHOFAKARA (Epispastic), as Snoohee Euphorbia Tirucalli).
53. SHOOLPRASHAMANA (Anticolic), as Ajamoda Ptychotis ajowan).
54. SHOTHAHARA (Discutient), as Arani (Premna serratifolia).
55. SHRAMAHARA (Refrigerant), as Ikshu (Sac¬charum officinarum).
56. SHRONITASTHAPANA (Styptic), as Kesara Crocus sativus).
57. SHUKRAJANANA (Spermatopoietic), as Ksheerakakoli (Hedysarum gangeticum).
58. SHUKRALA (Tonic), as Rishabhaka (Helek¬teres isora).
59. SHUKRASHODHANA (Semen-improver), as Kushtha (Saussurea lappa).
60. SHVASAHARA (Antasthmatic), as Ela Amomum elettarum).
61.  SNEHOPAGA (Demulcent), as Vidari (Bat¬atas paniculata).
62. SRANSANA (Drastic), as Rajataru (Cassia istvla).
63. STANYAJANANA (Galactagogue), as Shata¬pushpa (Pimpindla Anisum).
64. STHAULYAKARA (Fat-former), as Panasa Artocarpus integrifolia).
65. SVARYA (Voice – improver), as Madhuka
68. VAJEEKARA (Aphrodisiac), as Ashvagandha Physalis somnifera).
69. VAMANA (Emetic), as Madana (Randia dumetorum).
70. VARNYA (Cosmetic), as Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia).
71. VATAKARA (Flatus-producer), as Vallaka Dolichos sinensis).
72. VEDANASTHAPANA (Anodyne), as Shireesha Mimosa Serissa).
73. VISHA (Toxic), as Vatsanabha (Aconitum NapeUus).
74. VISHAGHNA (Antitoxic), as Nirgundi ( Vitex Negundo).
75.  YAYAYI (Sedative), as Bhanga (Cannabis sativa).

Agnivesha, a disciple of Charaka, enumerates no less than five hundred classes of medicinal agents, arranged according to their real or supposed virtues in curing diseases. A few classes have been selected from this and other sources and noted above. The chief notable feature in connection with the nomenclature of the Indian plants is, that in several cases their names are descriptive either of their character or property. A few instances of names descriptive of the prominent specific character of the herb may be given :—

(a) Brachyramphus     sonchifolius is called Akhu-karni (rat-eared), as the leaves of the plant resemble the ears of a mouse.

(b) Acorus     Calamus is called Ugra-gandha (strong-smelling), because it gives off a very pungent odour.

(c)     Clitoria Ternatea is called Go-karni (cow-eared), from the supposed resemblance of the seeds to the ears of a cow.

(d) Aconitum ferox is called Vatsa-nabha

INDIAN MATERIA MEDICA. Il l

(calf s navel), because the root resembles in appearance the umbilical cord of a calf.
(e)     etnarginatus is styled Bahuphena (very foamy), as, like soap, its berry pro¬duces much froth when agitated with watt
(/)     Ricinus communis is called Chitrabeeja (spotted-seed), because of the seed being mottled with white, brown, or dark patches.
(y)     Mimosa sensitiva is called Lajjalu (shy), from its leaves mimicking sensibility by folding themselves at the slightest touch.
(//) Tribtdus teiresbris is called Trikantaka (three-prickled), because its fruit is armed with three thorns.
(<‘)     Datura alba is called Gkanta-pushpa (bell-flower), from the shape of its flowers.
(j)     Cassia fistula is called Deergha-fala (long¬pod), because its pod is cylindrical, about two feet in length, and one to one inch and a half in diameter.

The following are a few names descriptive of the inherent virtue of the herb :—
(a) Amygdalus communis is called Vatavairee wind-enemy), as it cures disorders of the wind.

(6)     Embelia ribes is called Krimi-ghna (worm-killer), from its anthelmintic properties.

(c)     Cassia Tora is known by the name of Dadru-ghna (itch-curing), as it is sup¬posed to be very efficacious in curing the itch.

(d)     Coleus aromaticus is named Pashana-bhedi (stone-breaker), as its juice is said to possess the property of dissolving stone.

(e)     Trianthema obcordata is called Shotha¬ghnee (intumescence-curing), from the use of its root in dispersing morbid swellings.

(/)     Ophelia Chiretta is named Jvarantaka (fever-ending), for it is supposed to check fever.

(g) Thevetia neriifolia     is called Pleeha-ghnee (spleen-curing), being credited with the power of curing splenic disorders.

(h) Terminalia bellerica     goes by the name of Kasa-ghna (cough-curing), because it cures pulmonary catarrh.

Glossaries – A ready made FAQ for the book

GLOSSARY

Abacus (pi. Abaci).—The upper¬most member of a capital. In Grecian Doric it is a plain square slab; in all other orders and styles it tends to be more or less ornamental. See Fig. 10.

Agora. — In ancient Greek cities; an open place, often the market-place. It corresponds nearly to the Forum in an ancient Italian town.

Aisle. — In a basilica or a church of the middle ages or of more recent times, one of the side divisions, as distinguished from the middle division, which is usually wider and higher. In a cruciform church the nave, the choir, and the transept may have each its own aisles. In some churches there are two aisles on each side of the high middle part, and in a very few there are three aisles on each side, as in Antwerp Cathedral; see Fig. 157. In a few small churches, there is an aisle on one side of the nave only. Cf. Choir, Clear-story, Nave, Transept, and see the plans and sections of churches in Chaps.
III. to VII. In a round church the outer and lower division encircling the high central part is considered the aisle. See Figs. 61, 62, 63, and 70.

Ambulatory.—A passage-way for foot passengers, usually covered and enclosed; especially when architectural in character and forming part of a building.

Amphiprostyle. — Prostyle at each end; said especially of a Greek or Roman temple. See Fig. 6.

Annular Vault. —See Vault.

Annulet.—A moulding forming a ring; in Grecian Doric, one of several projecting mouldings at the base of the echinus. See Figs. 11 and 12.

Anta (pi. Ante). —A solid pier built at the end of a wall to give it stiffness. In Greek and Roman architecture it is gener¬ally treated as a pilaster. See Fig. 8.

Anthemion. — An ornament formed like a group of flowers, leaves, or the like, springing from a common point or from a short stem, and generally formal and sym¬metrical, so that an elliptical or similar curve would bound it. The most familiar instance is the honeysuckle or palmette ornament used in the Corinthian Ionic styles.

Antls, In.—Between ante; said of columns or of a portico, and by extension, of the whole porch or vestibule to which such columns belong. Thus, in Fig. 6, the two porticoes are distyle in units,

Aphrodite. — In Grecian mythology the goddess of love and beauty. The Italian deity Venus was identified with Aphrodite by the later Roman writers. Thus in Homer,

Aphrodite is the mother of Aineias; and Virgil, while latinizing the latter name as Aeneas, calls the hero the son of Venus.

Apollo. — In Grecian mythology the god of poetry and song, also of healing, and often identified with the sun. The Romans took this deity into their Pantheon without trying to identify him with any Italian god.

600 dpi Scans – more possibities for viewing

More and more libraries are joining the Google Book Search program. Lessons learned, and newer technology is having a significant effect on the overall quality of the original scans. A better original generally leads to recognition accuracy.

When a book contains a lot of plates with well recognised legends we create a V53 of the book. The ‘5’ denotes the file contains only plates, the ‘3’ denotes that the legend has been recognised – hence V53.

Most plate collections are accompanied with a ‘list of illustrations’. If the legend has been well recognised, then the chances are that the list of illustrations will be well recognised as well.

Below is a list of illustrations from “A Short History of Architecture’ which we will shortly publish as a V53.

Francaise . . ., par Viollet-le-Duc. Vogiii : Syrie Centrale; Architecture, Civile et Religieuse, par le Comte de Vogue. Willis: On the Construction of the Vaults of the Middle Ages, by

R. Willis [In the Transactions of the Royal Institute of British Architects for 184a].
FIG.     PAGE
1. Athens, Theseion, plan
2. Athens, Theseion, exterior. Drawn by D. JV. B. S
3. Psestum, Temple of Poseidon, interior. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. . 8
4. Athens, Parthenon, plan
5.     Athens, Parthenon and Olympia, Temple of Zeus; two fronts on same scale
6. Eleusis, Temple of Artemis, plan
7. Athens, Propylaia, plan
8. Athens, Propylaia, sectional perspective. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. 14
9. Corner of a Doric Temple. Drawn by D. JV. B. S
10. Construction of a Doric Temple. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. . . . 17
11. Athens, Doric Cap, indications of colour. Drawn by E. H. S. . 18
12. Outlines of Different Doric Capitals
13. Ionic Capital at Athens. Drawn by D. JV. B. S
14. Athens, Erechtheion, plan
15. Athens, Erechtheion, elevation of order. Direct from Boetticker 26
16. Ionic Corner Capital, plan
17. Ionic Corner Capital, from within. Direct from Durm … 27
18. Corner of an Ionic Temple. Drawn by D. JV. B. S
19. Athens, Lysikrates’ Monument. Drawn by D, JV. B. S. . 31
20. Athens, Lysikrates1 Monument, restoration of top. Direct from Stuart 32
21. Epidauros, Corinthian Capital. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. 33
22. Corinthian Capital. Direct from Boetticher
23. Corinthian Capital. Direct from Boetticher
24. Samothrace, the Arsinoeion. Direct from Come     -35
25. Athens, Erechtheion, Caryatid Portico. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. 39
26. Athens, Throne i n Theatre. Direct fro m Handbuch . . . . 40
27. Akragas, Temple of Zeus, plan
28. Rome, Pantheon, interior. Direct from IsabeUe . . -57
29.     Rome, Thermae of Caracalla, interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after Viol¬let-le-Duc
30. Rome, S. M. degli Angeli, interior. Drawn by S. C
31. Nlmes, Nymphaeum, interior. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. … 67
32. Nlmes, Nymphaeum, detail. Direct fro m Choisy . . . . 68
33. Musmiyeh, Pretorium, interior. Direct from Vogut …. 69
34. Rome, Trajan’s Forum and Basilica Ulpia, restored plan . . . 72
35. Cori, So-called Temple of Hercules, front. Direct from Gailh. . 74
36. Nlmes, Maison Carre’e. Direct from Martha
37. Baalbek, Temple of Jupiter, plan
38. Baalbek, Temple of Jupiter, interior. Drawn by D. N”. B. S. . 78
39. Palmyra, Part of Great Colonnade. Drawn by D. N, B. S. 82
40. Restoration of Roman Temple with Portico. Direct from Entretiens 84
41. Saint Chamas, Roman Bridge, with two arches. Drawn by D. AT. B. S. 86
42. Benevento, Arch of Trajan. Drawn by D. JV. B. S
43. Saint Remy, Monument. Drawn by D. 2Y. B. S
44. Rome, Theatre of Marcellus, detail. Direct from Entretiens 93
45. Rome, Arch of Constantine, detail. Drawn by D. N. B. S. 95
46. Saintes, Roman Gateway. Drawn by /?. JV. B. S. . 97
47. Athens, Arch of Hadrian. Drawn by D. IV. B. S. . 98
48. Lambese, Pretorium. Drawn by D. N. B. S
49. Spalato, Palace of Diocletian, arcade. Drawn by D. N. B. S, 100
50. Composite Capital. Drawn by D. N. B. S.
51. Capital with Figure, Lateran Museum. Drawn by Z>. N. B. S. . .103
52. Capital with Rams, Lateran Museum. Drawn by D. N. B. S. .104
53. Composite Ionic Capital from Temple of Saturn. Drawn by D. N. B. S.
54. Panel of Leafage, Lateran Museum. Drawn by D. N. B. S. 105
55. Kalb Louzeh, Interior of Church. Direct from Vog&i . . .114
56. Deir Siman, Triumphal Arch. Direct from Vogtti . . . 116
57. Serjilla, Two Columns from the Church. Direct from Vogue’ 117
58. Kalat Siman, Apse of Church. Direct from Vogue’ . 118
59. Rome, Basilica of S. John Lateran, plan
60. Rome, Basilica of S. Clemente, interior. Direct from Bunsen 123
61. Rome, Church of S. Costanza, plan
62. Rome, Church of S. Costanza, interior. Direct from IsabeUe .125
63. Nocera, Church of S. M. de la Rotonda. Direct from Isabelle . .127
64. Rome, Basilica of S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, interior. Direct from Bunsen
65. Biella, Chapel. Direct from Dartein
66. Montmajour, Chapel. Direct from V.-le-D
67. Cividale, Church of S. M. in Valle, interior. Direct from Gailh. 137
68. Constantinople, Church of H. Sophia, plan
69. Constantinople, Church of H. Sophia, section. Direct from Sals, 141
70. Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapel, plan. Direct from Dartein . .148
71. Saint Saturnin and Querqueville, plans of chapels. Direct from Lenoir 149
72. Vignory, Church, plan. Direct from V.-le~D
73. Vignory, Church, interior. Drawn by A. M. G. 150
74. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, section. Direct from V.-U-D

75. Poitiers, Baptistery. Direct from Archives
76. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, plan. Direct from Mallay 154
77.     Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, vaulting of choir-aisle. Direct from V.-le-D.
78. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, plan of vaults. Drawn by E.H.S.
79. Pe’rigueux, Church of S. Front, plan. Direct from Handbuch . 157
80. Pe’rigueux, Church of S. Front, interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after Gailh
81. Diagrams of Vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S.
82. Ve’zelay, Abbey Church, aisle. Drawn by D. AT. B. S. 161
83. Diagrams, plan and undersurface of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 162
84. Diagrams, plan and undersurface of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 163
85. Diagram of Vaulting. Direct from V.-le-D
86. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S
87. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .165
88. Romanesque Vaulting, view. Drawn by E. H.’S
89. Diagram of Vaulting. Drawn- by E. H. S.
90. Milan, Church of S. Ambrogio, partial section. Direct from R.-R’. . 168
91. Pavia, Church of S. Michele, one bay of nave. Direct from R.-R. . 169
92. Spires, Cathedral, two bays of nave. Direct from Gailh, . . 171
93. V^zelay, Abbey Church, nave. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . .173
94. Peterborough, Cathedral, partial plan. Direct from R.-R. 175
95. Peterborough, Cathedral, interior. Drawn by E.J.M.. . .176
96. Tournai, Cathedral, group of towers. Drawn by S. C. . . 177
97. Durham, Cathedral, Galilee. Direct from Billings’ Z>. Cath. . 179
98. Aries, Church of S. Trophime, cloister. Direct from V.-le-D. . .180
99. Venddme, Tower of Church. Direct from V.-U-D
100. Vernouillet, Tower of Church. Direct from V.-le-D. . .183
101. Constantinople, Church of Theotokos, plan. Direct from Sals. 184
102. Constantinople, Church of Theotokos, elevation. Direct ixomSals. . 185
103. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .187
104. Romanesque Vault Direct from V.-U-D.
105. Diagram of Vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S.
106. Skeleton of Vaulting Ribs. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .189
107. Rib and Shell of Gothic Vault. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .191
108. Skeleton of Vaulting Ribs. Direct from V.4e-D
109. Scheme of Shell of Gothic Vault. Direct from K-le-D. . . 193
110. Scheme of Shell of Gothic Vault. Direct from V.-U-D. . . . 194 in . Diagram Plan, sexpartite vault. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . 194
112. Skeleton of Ribs, sexpartite vault. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . 195
113. Diagram, alternative arrangement of vaulting spaces. Drawn by E.H.S.
114. Diagram, two pointed arches. Dra .vn by E. H. S. …. 197
115. Diagram plan, Gothic church without aisles. Drawn by E. H. S. IQ8
116. Diagram, flying buttress construction. Drawn by E. H. S. 199
117. Reims, Church of S. Remy, buttress system. Direct from King
118. Soissons, Cathedral, interior of S. transept Direct from V.-U-D. 203
119. Diagram, comparative sections. Drawn by E.H.S.. 204
120. Noyon, Cathedral, plan. Direct from V.-U-D
121. Noyon, Cathedral, interior. Drawn by E. J. M.     208
122. Paris, Sainte Chapelle, exterior. Direct from D. Sr* D. 212
123. Reims, Cathedral, window. Direct from V.-U-D.     214
124. Paris, Sainte Chapelle, one bay. Direct from V.-U-D. 2l6
125. Paris, Cathedral, gable. Direct from V.-U-D
126. Paris, Cathedral, N. door of W. front. Direct from V.-U-D. 218
127. Scheme of a Gothic Cathedral. Direct from V.-U-D. 220
128. Reims, Restoration of House of the Musicians. Direct from V.-U-D, 224
129. Magdeburg, Cathedral, interior of choir. Drawn by E. J. M. 228
130. Magdeburg, Cathedral, doorway. Drawn by E. J. M. 230
131. Treves, Church of Liebfrauen Kirche, plan. Direct from Gailh, 231
132. Freiburg, Minster, two bays of S. flank. Direct from King 234
133. Lincoln, Cathedral, plan of choir vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 24O
134. Lincoln, Cathedral, plan of nave vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 241
135. Lincoln, Cathedral, view of nave vaulting. Drawn by E. J. M. 242
136.     Carlisle, Cathedral, part of N. choir aisle. Direct from Billings’ Car¬lisU
137. Salisbury, Cathedral, tomb of Bishop Giles. Direct from Gailh 246
138. Fossanova, Chapter-House. Drawn by E. J. M. 248 138 A. Fossanova, Refectory. Drawn by E.J.M.. 249
139. Santa Maria d’ Arbona. Drawn by E. J. M. after Enlart. 25I
140. Florence, Church of S. Maria Novella, nave. Drawn by E. J. M. 253
141.     Verona, Church of S. Anastasia, one bay. Drawn by D. N. B. S. after Gruner
142. Verona, Church of S. Anastasia, exterior. Drawn by D. AT. B. S. 256
143. Assisi, Church of S. Francesco, one bay. Direct from Gailh. . 258
144. Rouen, Church of S. Ouen, plan. Direct from V.-U-D. 26l
145. Carcassonne, Cathedral, N. front. Direct from France Artistique 265
146. Reims, Cathedral, window of nave. Direct from V.-U-D. . 267
147. Paris, Cathedral, window of chapel. Direct from V.-U-D. 269
148.     Troyes, Church of S. Urbain, diagram of window tracery. Direct from V.-U-D.
149. Carcassonne, Cathedral, window. Direct from V.-U-D.
150. Rouen, Cathedral, pierced gable of N. transept door. Direct from V.-U-D
151. Chateaudun, Front and plan of house. Direct from V.-U-D. 277
152. Troyes, Chapel of S. Gilles, detail of framing. Direct from V.-le-D,
158. Oppenheim, Church of S. Katharine, detail of S. flank. Direct from Foerster
159. Nuremburg, Church of S. Sebaldus, E. end. Direct from Foerster
160. Erfurt, Cathedral, plan. Direct from King ….
161. Erfurt, Cathedral, exterior. Direct from King ….
162. Vienna, Cathedral, plan. Direct from Foerster …
163. Lincoln, Cathedral, central tower. Direct from Brit ton
164. Beverley, Minster, one bay, exterior and interior. Direct from Britton

164 A. Carlisle, Cathedral, E. window. Direct from Billings’ Carlisle
165. Staindrop, Church, choir. Direct from Billings'” D. Co, 165 A. Ely, Cathedral, plan of vaulting of octagon. Drawn by E. H. S.
166. Durham, Cathedral, detail of vaulting. Direct from Billings’* D. Cat A. 166 A. London, Westminster Hall, roof 166 B. Plans of three churches compared. Drawn by E. H. S. .
167. Bologna, Church of S. Petronio, detail of interior. Drawn by E. y, M.
168. Florence, Cathedral, part of interior. Direct from Gailh. . 168 A. Lucca, Cathedral, part of interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after Shaw
169. Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi, interior. Direct from Rohault
170. Venice, Ducal Palace, detail of facade. Direct from Cicogn.
171. Verona, Tomb of Mastino II. Drawn by E. J. M. .
172. Paris, Church of S. Germain TAuxerrois. Direct from De G.
173. Narbonne, Cathedral, detail of pier. Direct from V.-le-D.
174. Rouen, Church of S. Maclou, gables of porch. Drawn by A. M. G.
175. Evreux, Cathedral, buttress. Direct from V.-le-D.
176. Narbonne, Cathedral, detail of cloister. Direct from V.-le-D. .
177. Avioth, Chapel, plan. Direct from V.-le-D
178. Avioth, Chapel, exterior. Direct from V.-le-D
179. Albi, Cathedral, S. porch. Direct from V.-le-D.
180. Tours, Cathedral, central doorway. Direct from V.-le-D.
181. Eu, Church, pendant of vaulting rib. Direct from V.-le-D.
182. Troyes, Church of S. Madeleine, jube’. Direct from Gailh.
183. Paris, Hotel de Cluny, plan. Direct from V.-le-D.
184. Paris, Hotel de Cluny, exterior. Direct from V.-le-D.
185. Rouen, Front of house. Direct from V.-le-D
186. Valladolid, Church of S. Gregorio, cloister door. Drawn by E. J. M.

1.     Guadalajara, Courtyard of a palace. Drawn by E. J. M. .
2.     Hanover, Rathhaus. Drawn by A. Af. G.

489. Taunton, Church of S. M. Magdalen, tower. Direct from Britton 189 A. Warwick, the Beau champ Chapel. Direct from Britton .
1.     Oxford, Christ Church College Hall, vestibule. Drawn by E./. Af.
2.     Windsor, S. George’s Chapel, vaulting. Direct from Willis
3.     Florence, Pazzi Chapel. Drawn by A. Af. G
4.     Mantua, Church of S. Andrea, plan. Drawn by E. H. S. .
5.     Certosa, near Pavia, detail. Direct from Durelli
6.     Relief Arabesque. Direct fro m Art pour Tons …
7.     Venice, Church of S. Zaccaria, front. Direct from Cicogn.
8.     Diagram Plan, Renaissance Church. Drawn by E. H. S. .198. Venice, Church of S. Fantino, interior. Drawn by S. C. .

1.     Cortona, Church of S. M. Nuova, plan. Direct from Lasfeyres
2.     Montepulciano, Church of S. Biagio, plan. Direct from Lasfeyres
3.     Rome, Palazzo Stoppani, front. Direct from Le Tarouilly .
4.     Chateau of Chambord, central mass. Direct from Gailh. .
5.     Blois, Chateau, stairway tower of Francois I. Direct from Archives
6.     Bussy-le-Grand, Chateau, detail. Direct from Sauvageot .
7.     Varengeville, Manoir d’Ango, detail. Drawn by A. Af. G.
8.     Rouen, Front of house. Direct from Gailh
9.     Ecouen, Chateau, detail. Drawn by A. Af. G
10.     Nogent-sur-Seine, Church, detail. Direct from Gailh. D. B. .
11.     Paris, Church of S. Etienne du Mont, front. Direct from De G.
12.     Paris, Church of S. Etienne du Mont, interior. Direct from Encyc,
13.     Tillieres, Church, roof of choir. Direct from Encyc. .
14.     Tillieres, Church, diagram plan. Drawn by E. H. S.
15.     Moulins, Hospital, part of front. Direct from Gailh. D. B.
16.     Paris, Luxembourg, pavilion. Drawn by E. H. S.
17.     Paris, Church of S. Roch, interior. Drawn by E. J. Af. .
18.     Antwerp, Church of S. Charles Borromeo, tower. Drawn by E. y. M.
19.     Avila, Casa Polentina, detail. Direct from Prentice .
20.     Granada, Palace of Charles V., detail. Drawn by E. J. M.
21.     Hildesheim, Wooden house. Direct from Schaefer .
22.     Danzig, Zeughaus, detail. Drawn by E. H. S.
23.     Cologne, Rathhaus, porch. Direct from Gailh. .
24.     Ratisbon, Rathhaus, doorway. Drawn by E. y. Af. .
25.     Munich. Church of S. Michael, interior. Drawn by E y. Af.
26.     Bramshill, Manor House, detail. Drawn by S. C. .
27.     Wollaton House, one tower. Drawn by E. H. S. lit. Gainford Hall, doorway. Direct from Billings’ D. Co.

227. Moreton Old Hall, detail. Drawn by O. H. B. .

1.     Venice, Palazzo Widman. Drawn by A. M. G
2.     Venice, Scuola di S. Rocco. Drawn by S. C.
3.     Vicenza, Palazzo Thiene. Drawn by S. C. 230 A. Vicenza, Villa Rotonda. Drawn by 5″. 4.     Rome, Church of S. Peter, partial plan. Direct from Gailh,
5.     Rome, church of S. Peter, N. front. Direct from Gailh
6.     Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori. Drawn by S. C. .
7.     Versailles, Chapel of Chateau, interior. Drawn by E. J. M.
8.     Paris, Ministere de la Marine. Drawn by E. J. M.
9.     Paris, Church of the Invalides. Direct from Gailh. 227- Paris, H6tel Soubise, interior. Direct from Art pour Tons

1.     Paris, Hdtel Soubise, pavilion. Drawn by E. H. S.
2.     Antwerp, Doorway of a court. Drawn by E. H. S.
3.     Louvain, Church of S. Michael, detail. Drawn by E, /. M.
4.     Zaragoza, Old Cathedral, tower. Drawn by E. y. M.
5.     Madrid, Palace, detail. Drawn by E. H. S.
6.     Zurich, Town Hall, detail. Drawn by E. 7. Af.
7.     Magdeburg, Rathhaus, detail. Drawn by A. M. G. .
8.     Dresden, Catholic Court Church, detail. Drawn by E. J. M.
9.     Bruchsal Schloss, interior. Direct from Art pour Tous
10.     Stuttgart, Schloss, ” Solitude.” Drawn by S. C.
11.     Munich, Street Front. Drawn by O. H. B.
12.     London, Temple Bar. Drawn by E. J. M.
13.     London, Church of S. Mary le Bow, steeple Drawn by E. J. M.
14.     London, Church of S. Paul, partial section. Direct from Gailh.
15.     London, Church of S. Paul, W. front detail. Drawn by E. J. M.
16.     London, Church of S. Mary le Strand, steeple. Drawn by E. J. M.
17.     London, Somerset House, vestibule. Direct from a print
18.     Venice, Palazzo Grassi. Drawn by 5″. C.
19.     Rome, Piazza di S. Pietro, colonnade. Drawn by E. J. Af.

Why was I Written? – In the Authors own words.

A succinct preface of one or two pages can be invaluable when deciding which books to download. Below is the preface from “A Short History of English Grammar”.
PREFACE

For some years the want has been felt of a short historical English grammar up to date, especially as regards phonology, dialectology and chronology, the last implying careful dis¬crimination between what is really in living use and what is obsolete. The present work is an attempt to supply this want. It is an abridgment of the historical portions of my New English Grammar. It does not include syntax, for the good reason that a grammar which attempted to deal—even if only superficially—with such a vast and difficult subject as historical English syntax could not possibly be designated as a ‘ short’ grammar. But within the limits of phonology and accidence, including composition and derivation, it will, I hope, be found to contain all that is really essential to the beginner.

Some teachers will be disappointed at not finding here any exposition of that time-honoured generalization ‘Grimm’s Law/ and the still more popular ‘ Verner’s Law.’ I have for  the present excluded them, because they do not belong to_ historical English grammar, but to comparative Arian philo¬logy ; because, if studied adequately, they are too difficult for beginners; and because, without a detailed knowledge of
Sanskrit, &c, they are of little use for etymological purposes. But although most of those who have kept pace with the recent developments of Comparative Philology admit all this, some of them still plead for the retention of Grimm’s Law on the ground of its being so interesting, and having such a stimulating effect on pupils. The answer to this is, By all means teach it then, but teach it as an extra, not as a part of English grammar, any more than you would include French, Latin, and Greek etymology in English grammar ; although, of course, English grammar undoubtedly leads up to all these subjects, and is more or less directly connected with them, in the same way as it is connected with the political, social, and literary history of England.

The study of this grammar requires no preparation except a knowledge of the ordinary grammatical terms. It does not even postulate any practical knowledge of Old English, although I should advise every teacher of historical English grammar .to let his pupils go through a preparatory course in Old English with the help of such a book as my Anglo-Saxon Primer.

Additional grammatical details and illustrations that may be required will easily be found in The New English Grammar and my History of English Sounds, in which latter will be found a concise statement not only of Grimm’s and Verner’s laws but also of all the other sound-laws by which English is connected with the older Arian languages.

HENRY SWEET.
SOUTH PARK, REIGATE, 7 Sept., 1892.

A new and Unique Genealogical Resource

Bound to be of interest to Genealogical researchers are the numerous subscriber lists pulled from the Ultrapedia Library. Below is the subscriber list from an 1844 ecclesiastical text.
NAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS.
The Earl of Arundel and Surrey.
The Earl of Shrewsbury.
The Countess of Clare.
The Earl of Traquair.
The Most Reverend Dr. MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam.
The Most Reverend Dr. Polding, Archbishop of Sydney.
The Right Honourable Lord Camoys.
The Right Honourable Lord Stourton.
The Right Honourable Lord Petre.
The Right Honourable Lord Lovat, Beaufort Castle.
The Right Reverend Dr. Griffiths, V.A.L.
The Right Reverend Dr. Carruthers, Blair’s College.
The Right Reverend Dr. Murdoch, Glasgow.
The Right Reverend Dr. Gillis.
The Right Reverend Dr. Healy, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin.
The Right Reverend Dr. Wiseman.
The Right Reverend Dr. T. J. Brown, V.A., Wales.
The Right Reverend Dr. Wilson, Hobarton.
The Honourable Sir Edward Vavasour, Bart. Sir Robert Throckmorton, Bart.
The Honourable Lady Bedingfeld.
Lady S. M. Stanley.
The Honourable Edward Petre.
The Honourable Mrs. Edward Petre.
The Honourable Charles Thomas Clifford.
The Honourable Henry Stafford Jerningham.
The Honourable William Stafford Jerningham.

Abbot, Rev. Joseph, Birmingham.
Alberry, Rev. Joseph, Winchester.
Applegath, Rev. A., Crayford. Arundell Renfric, Esq. Aston, —, Esq.
Bagshawe, H. R., Esq. Ball, Rev. John, Doncaster. Barnewall, Henry, Esq. Bent, Rev. George, West Bromwich. Blundell, T. Weld, Esq. Bond, Rev. William, Chidcock, Dorsetshire. Boothman, Thomas, Jun., Esq. Bourchier, Alfred, Esq. Two Copies. Bower, Rev. T. Bradshaw, James, Esq., Marnhull. Brewer, Rev. Henry, O.S.B., Brown Edge, Preston. Buckley, Mr. Thomas. Butterly, Thomas, Esq. Byron, Rev. L.S., Christchurch.
Calderbank, Rev. L., Spetisbury House. Carter, Rev. John, Woolston, Lancashire. Casey, Rev. William, Marnhull. Catholicon. Chamberlain, R. D., Esq. Chambers, Miss L. City of London Catholic Literary Society. Two Copies. Clarke, G. N., Esq. Clough, Rev. James, Pylewell. Conway, William, Esq., Dublin. Coombes, Rev. Dr., Shepton Mallett. Costigan, Rev. Thomas, Margate. Coverdale, Mr. James.

Cox, Rev. Dr., St. Edmund’s College. Craven, A., Esq. Curr, Rev. Joseph, Blackburn.
Dallow, Mr. W. A. Dames, Mr. Davis, R. F., Esq. Day, Miss M. Douglass, J. A., Esq. Doyle, Rev. James. Doyle, Rev. Thomas. Dugdale, Rev. Joseph Stockton-on-Tees. Dullard, Rev. James, St. Benedict’s Priory.
Egan, Rev. Eugene, Shrewsbury. EUames, Pattison, Esq.
Finney, John, Esq. Firebrace, Hon. Judge, Demerara. Fisher, Rev. Joseph, C, Hazlewood Hall. Fisher, Rev. William, York. Fitzpatrick, R. W„ Esq. Fletcher, Rev. Dr., Northampton. Forristal, Mr. Forster, Edward, Esq. Foxhall, E. M., Esq. Fryer, Very Rev. Monsignore, D.D.
Gaflhey, Rev. M., Dean of St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth. Gladding, Mr. Two Copies. Gladstone, Miss. Gradwell, Rev. Henry, Claughton, Garstang.
Hansom, Joseph, Esq.

Harrison, R., Esq. Hearne, Rev. Daniel, Manchester. Hearsnep, Rev. James. Hodges, G. B., Esq. (since deceased.) Hog, Thomas, Esq. Hogarth, Rev. Robert, Burton Constable. Hogarth, Rev. William, Darlington. Horrabin, Rev. R. Houlgrave, Mr. Huddleston, Rev. Edward, Stafford. Hunt, Rev. J. Husenbeth, Rev. F. C, Cossey. Hussey, John, Esq. Hutton, Rev. P., Prior Park.
Ibbotson, Mr. Dsley, Rev. William, Baddesley.
Jackson, Mr. Jauch, Rev. J., German Chapel. Jefferies, Rev. George, Birmingham. Jenkins, Rev. John, Cheltenham. Jones, Rev. John. Jones, William, Esq., Clytha. Jones, Mr. Thomas.
Keane, D.D., Esq. Keane, Mr. James. Kelly, Rev. Matthew, St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth. Kendal, John, Esq. Kerr, John, Esq. Kiernan, Francis, Esq. Kirk, Rev. John, Lichfield. Knight, Dr. Arnold, Sheffield.
Last, Rev. George, Ingatesfame Hall

Larenson, Rev. James, Wardonr.
Lawlor, Denis Shine, Esq.
Lee, Rev. Walter, D.D., St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth.
Leek, Mr. W. T.
Leigh, Mr.
Lescher, William, Esq.
Lima, Rev. Dr. A. E. De
Iingard, Rev. Dr.
Long, Rev. Thomas.
Lomax, Edmund, Esq.
Lynch, Mr.
M’Cormick, Rev. Hugh, St. Austin’s, Manchester.
M’Donnell, Rev. Thomas, Torquay. Maguire, Rev. Dr., Bavarian ChapeL. Maguire, Rev. Alfred, Hethe, Bicester.
Macpherson, Mr. Martin, Thomas, Esq. Maxwell, William Constable, Esq. Maxwell, Henry, Esq. Maxwell, Joseph, Esq. Menzies, John, Esq. (since deceased.) Metcalfe, Rev. Edward, Newport, Monmouthshire. Meyer, Mr. James. Moore, Thomas Arthur O’Donnell, Esq. Morgan, G. R., Esq. Munk, Dr. Murray, Rev. P. A., St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth.
Neve, Mrs. Newcastle-on-Tyne Catholic Religious Defence Society. Nind, P., Esq.

O’Connell, Rev. Daniel, Ardara, County Donegal. O’Reilly, Rev. Edmund, D.D., St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth. Orrell, Rev. Philip, Poulton-in-the-Fylde.
Pagliano, C. J., Esq. Parke, Rev. Joseph. Patterson, W. F., Esq. Peyton, Miss. Phillips, Rev. Henry, Tichborne. Pugin, A. Welby, Esq.
Reardon, Rev. T. Rees, John, Esq. Render, Rev. Joseph, Hull. Riddell, Rev. William, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Ritchie, E., Esq. Robertson, Mrs. Robson, Rev. J. Rock, Rev. Dr., Buckland. Russell, Rev. C. W., St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth. Rymer, Mr.
Scoles, James, Esq. Scott, Ernest, Esq. Segrave, O’Niel, Esq. Sibthorp, Rev. R. Waldo, Ryde. Sing, Rev. Thomas, Derby. Smith, Rev. Robert, Haggerston Castle. Stasiewicz, Rev. Gregory, Gravesend. Stillwell, Mr., Battel, Sussex.
Talbot, William, Esq. Tempest, Miss M., Broughton. Thompson, Rev. William, Esh Laude. Tidmarsh, Thomas, Esq., Manchester.

A Plain Outline of Law

One of the best things about running an OCR farm is that we are never short of quality content with which to populate this blog. Below is a very astute appendix from “A Plain Outline of Law”
APPENDIX.
THE following are translations of many of the numerous Latin maxims bearing on the law, those selected being mostly taken from the collec¬tion embodied in Wharton’s useful Law Lexicon.
Reason is the soul of law ; the reason of law being changed, the law is also changed.
Reason is the formal cause of custom.

Reason can be alleged when the law is defective; but reason must be true and legal, and not apparent. Law is the rule of right, and that which is contrary to the rule of right is an injury. Law is the highest reason, which commands those things which are useful and necessary, and prohibits the contrary. Law is a sacred sanction, commanding what is honourable, and prohibiting what is contrary. The law is the safest helmet; under the shield of the law none are deceived.

The law intends what is consistent with reason.
The law speaks to all with the same mouth.
The law makes use of a fiction where equity subsists.
The law will always give a remedy.
The law dislikes delay.
The law looks forward, not backward.
The law never allows anything contrary to truth.
The law cares not for trifles.
The law is not defective in administering justice.
The law intends not anything impossible.
The law regards the order of nature.
The law aids the ignorant.
The law punishes a lie.
The law does not favour the wishes of the dainty.
The law works harm to no one, does injury to no one.
The law of necessity is the law of time and place.
The law is not to be violated by the king.
The law dispenses what use has approved.

The safety of the people is the supreme law.
The laws are silent amidst arms.
The custody of the law is stronger than that of mah.
The disposition of the law is stronger and more equitable than that
of man.

The laws consist, not in being read, but in being understood.
Simplicity is favourable to the laws; and too much subtilty in law is to be reprobated.
Allegiance is the essence of law ; it is the chain of faith.
As nature does not do anything by a leap, neither does the law.
The laws of nature are immutable.

Laws are abrogated by the same means by which they are con¬stituted. What is done contrary to law, is considered as not done. Ignorance of the fact excuses; ignorance of the law excuses not. Politics are to be adapted to the laws, and not the laws to politics. Law regards equity. Law sometimes follows equity. Equity follows the law. Where the equities are equal, the common law must prevail. Equity operates on the conscience. Equity never counteracts the laws. Equity is a correction of the law, when too general, in that part in which it is defective.

Equity is tantamount to equality.
That which is equal and good is the law of laws.
Justice is to be denied to none.
Justice is neither to be denied nor delayed.
Justice, truly preventing, is better than severely punishing.
Justice regards truth alone.
Let right be done, though the heavens should fall.
Let nothing be rashly changed.
Evidence is to be weighed, not enumerated.
An eye-witness is preferred to others.
One eye-witness is more than ten ear-witnesses.
It is the province of the law to determine what right is, and what constitutes injury.
It is the duty of the judge to declare, not to make the law.
The best interpretation is made from the context.
As judges do not answer to questions of fact, so juries do not answer to questions of law.
Juries are the judges of fact.
No one should be judge in his own cause.
Judgments are the dicta of law, and are accepted as truth.
A judge is the spokesman of the law.
A judge ought always to have equity before his eyes.
A judge cannot punish an injury done to himself.

A judge should have two salts; the salt of wisdom, lest he be insipid and the salt of conscience, lest he be diabolical.
Where there is a right, there is a remedy.
Public rights are preferred to private.
A right does not arise out of a wrong.
All things are presumed against a wrong-doer.
The king can do no wrong.
No time or place affects the king.
The king protects the law, and the law protects right.
Right cannot die.
Every man’s house- is his castle.
Silence gives consent.
Use your own rights so that you do not hurt another.
The intention is to be taken for the deed.
The will, not the consequence, is regarded in crimes.
The will of a testator is ambulatory until his death.
No one is bound to an impossibility.
No one is punished for the crime of another.
No one can do, through another, what he cannot do through him¬
self.
No one can transfer to another a greater right than he has himself.
No one is presumed to be bad.
No one is bound to accuse himself.
No one is bound to arm his adversary against himself.
No one can take advantage of his own wrong.
No one is the heir of the living.
No one is punished except for some injury, deed, or default.
An act does not make one guilty, unless it be his intention to do it.
Neither an act of God nor of law operates as an injury.
The burden of proof lies on a plaintiff.
Let the purchaser beware.
Let the principal answer.
You ought to know with whom you bargain.
The risk of a thing sold, and not yet delivered, is the purchaser’s.
Whatever is affixed to the soil belongs to the soil
To write is to act.
That is certain which can be rendered certain—but that is more
certain which is certain on the face of it.
The mention of one person is the exclusion of another.
What is expressed makes what is silent to cease.
It is the same thing to say nothing as to Say insufficiently.
An action does not arise out of a fraud.
It is fraud to conceal fraud.
Fraud and justice never dwell together.
Fraud and deceit ought not to be beneficial to any one.
An action does not arise out of a nude contract, i,e., one made with¬
out consideration.

Debt and contract are of no place. A debtor is not presumed to give. He who pays tardily pays too little. He who gives quickly gives twice. He who acts through another acts through himself. He who sticks to the letter sticks to the rind. Fiction yields to truth ; where there is truth, there is no fiction of
law.

Execution is the execution of the law, according to the judgment. Custom is the best interpreter of the law. Custom is another law. A custom ought to be certain; for an uncertain custom has no
place.

Custom and agreement overrule law. Necessity overcomes law; it derides the fetters of law. Deeds are more powerful than words. The exception proves the rule as to things not excepted. A double negative is an affirmative. False spelling or false grammar does not vitiate a grant. Remove the cause, the effect ceases. Remove the foundation, the superstructure falls. Whose it is to give, his it is to dispose of. Whose is the soil, his it is even to the sky.

The People in your PC part 1.

<I just found this old draft of an article I wrote in 2005 for a K9+ to GenX school magazine. It’s a draft as I said, and I can neither remember who it was written for, or where the rest of the article ended up. I have published here for a giggle, and also so you can cross-reference some of the names and events related in the article with the actual books in the LIbrary Browse.>  The People in your PC – (K9+ to GenX target audience) – rough draft – incomplete. 

 

6 Feb 05 Revision:

 

You’d be amazed just how many people there are in your PC, no really you would. And I’m not just taking about people like Michael Dell. Mr. Dell does not qualify, however from my perspective. I’m more interested in the people whose names we use without ever knowing who they are or what they did to merit inclusion.

 A good example of this would be Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, who we will meet later on. Ahh, so now you do get it – right? now you’re kicking yourself aren’t you! Hertz’ name is currently in use on a daily basis to quantify just how fast that shiny new computer of yours is. And globally too. Whether you are in Bombay or Brisbane, Cardiff or Caracas, you venture into any computer store, approach a salesman, tell him you want to buy a computer, and chances are the name of Hertz will enter the conversation.

 Oh, and did I mention there are lots of other people too, fascinating, brilliant, inspired people. People from all walks of life, from the nobility, to paupers. And lets not forget some of the most remarkable people of all in our PC – those whose names we don’t yet know, or names that go back thousands of years into our past. They’re all here and I do so hope this brief introduction has fueled your enthusiasm to meet the people in your PC!

 To start with then, lets begin with some of the biggies, people who have had a tremendous impact on our daily lives. Many of the people in your PC are inventors, some of them are so important that they have been immortalized by their peers and have had a Unit of Measurement named after them. Without wishing to underate things, the ability to measure or quantify something is essential to our modern society.

 Throughout history, accurate measurement of things has not always been so important as it is today. But in todays high-speed, globally networked economy, accuracy of information is all important. To be able to accurately measure something denotes a deep understanding of what that thing actually is, and the degree of accuracy to which we we can measure a thing indicates just how much, or little we know about that thing.

  

Lets take ‘Pi’ as an example. I was asking my 12 year-old nephew what he had learned at school one day, and he told me he had learned that the value of Pi was approximately 3.142 – thats important, so I’ll repeat it – approximately 3.142. Now, if your friend passed you an apple, and told you that you could take a bite out of that apple, but not a bite of more than 3.142 percent, then you’d probably take a pretty small bite – , and if, after he weighed the apple and found that you’d actually bitten off 4 percent of the apple, then chances are you’d agree that it was ‘near-enough’ – near enough that it didn’t make much difference

 Even though this is a rather frivolous example, I think you might begin to get the idea – namely, that the difference between 3.142 and 4 is so small that it isn’t worth bothering about. So why do we need to measure the value of Pi with such accuracy? 

 One might even ask the question – why have we all learned the value of Pi to such accuracy at all. I guess what I’m trying to get at is that my nephew used the word  ‘approximately’ – lets face it, the value of Pi is as near as damn it 3, yet even today school-kids everywhere will tell you the same thing – that the value of Pi is approximately 3.142.

 The value of Pi is probably the most accurate  long number we will ever come across – accurate that is to three decimal places. If a friend was to ask you how far it was to the nearest pub, or even how tall they were, an approximate measurement would be accurate enough.

 Pi is also one of the oldest complex numbers, it dates back to around 2000 BC, and is basically shorthand notation for ‘the circumference of a circle divided by it’s diameter’.  We’ve come a long way in our ability to measure the value of Pi, and today the value of Pi is known to more than ten billion decimal places.

 My point is, that increasingly accurate measurements indicate the technological sophistication of a society. Lets imagine for a minute that the world ended today, and that the only thing left to indicate that the human race had ever existed was  a huge monument with the value of Pi – accurate to a million decimal places—inscribed on it’s surface. An alien race, visiting earth a thousand years into the future would be able to deduce how sophisticated our society was simply from looking at the monument.

 And now back to some of those people in your PC, and particularly to the people who have units of measurement named after them. Particularly units of electrical measurement, because without electricity we wouldn’t have computers at all now would we!

 The actual term ELECTRICITY was coined by William Gilbert (1544-1603), an English scientist and physician. Gilbert studied medicine at Cambridge University, and eventually became Court Physician to Queen Elizabeth I. Back in the heady days of the  of the sixteenth century when ‘England ruled the waves’, and accurate navigation at sea was paramount. Gilberts most important work was in the field of magnetism and by extension the compass. Gilbert was the first to recognise that the earth itself was a magnet, with a north and south pole, just like any other magnet.

 So why don’t we say that William Gilbert discovered electricity? and why is it that your PC doesn’t run on 120 or 240 Gilberts? – Simply put, a discovery, just like an invention is a one-off – something can only be discovered once, and since electricity – in the form of lightning has been around since before man, then it’s likely that man discovered electricity in the form of lightning quite by accident, probably when a nameless and unfortunate caveman was struck by a bolt of lightning while wandering about outside his cave wondering what those strange flashes from the sky were all about.

 Remember too, that we only know about discoveries once they are recorded in writing. Since mankind has only been using written languages for a few thousand years, it follows then that the phenomena of electricity has only been written about for that time.

 In other words, once you have discovered anything, be it a new Quantum Theory, a new element, or a phenonenom like electricity you had to experiment with it to make it do something useful. 

 The first known written records  we have that deal with the phenomena of electricity date back to a Greek named Thales of the Ionian city of Miletus. In 600BC, Thales wrote of his experimentation with a piece of amber, and described how stroking it against his clothing caused the amber to display unusual and unlooked for characteristics – what we nowadays call static electricity. It is worth noting here also that just because somebody else has already discovered  a thing doesn’t lessen the wonder you can see on a childs face at a birthday party as one of his party balloons is rubbed on his head, and then when released, the balloon floats upwards to the ceiling and then stays put – magic !

 In the Greek language, the word for amber is electron, and it is in recognition of this fact that William Gilbert, over two thousand years later first used the word electricity, and electricities offspring – electronics.

 No, we measure electricity in VOLTS because of  an Italian called Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta. Volta was born in Como, Lombardy on February 18th 1745. Though he was noble-born, young Alessandro was not expected do make much of his life, due in part to his families lessening importance in the Italian court, but primarily because he was considered a ‘slow-starter’, and did not start to speak until he was four, and it was only at the age of seven, when his father died, that the family noticed that he had ‘caught up’ and was now as smart as the other children of his age. By the age of fourteen however, he had already made up his mind that he wanted to be a physicist.

 The young Volta became more and more fascinated by the Wonder of the Age’ – electricity, so much so, that he even wrote poetry devoted to the phenomena. In 1774 he was appointed professor of physics at the Como high school, and in 1778, while studying marsh gas he became to first person to isolate methane – known nowadays as ‘natural gas’ 

 Although this was an important discovery, it is Voltas creation in 1800 of the‘voltaic pile’ – the first battery that  pinned Voltas name to the unit for electricity for eternity.  So, you might well ask, if the Voltaic Pile was the first practical method of creating electricity, what were the ‘impractical’ methods. (check for others), but most of the electrical pioneers used to device called a Leyden Jar. 

 The name ‘Leyden’ is derived from Leiden in the Netherlands, where the inventor of the leyden jar – one Pieter van Musschenbroek lived. Another name for the Leyden Jar was the Condensor – so called because the scientists of the day believed thought of electricity as a fluid that could be condensed from the ‘Ether’, presumably in the same way that water could be condensed from steam.

 Incidentally, The term condensor was still in common use up to a couple of decades ago, indeed, you can still find some vintage car buffs still using the term even today – the ability of the condensor, and the Leyden Jar too to produce a whopping great jolt of electricity in a very short space of time made the condensor very useful in early automotive ignition circuits.

 In Volta’s time however, the Leyden Jar was more commonly used to demonstrate various electrical  phenomena, and these early ‘electricians’ as they were called were in high demand at fete’s and garden shows throughout Europe where they would quite literally ‘shock’ the crowds by killing all manner or birds and animals when the Leyden Jar was discharged.

 This really must have been quite a spectacle, and one cannot help but wonder if the term ‘electrician’ wasn’t coined through the amalgum of Electricity and Magician.

part 1 end… 

Romans and Zeros

 
also posted in the Ultrapedia forums
 
With copious apologies to John Cleese et al…

…Apart from sanitation, medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, the fresh water system, and public health…

…What have the Romans done for us…?

Roman Numerals maybe? And just how much of a gift was that then? However bright the Romans were there is one thing they lacked, and that is the concept of the number ZERO. And just why was this? Please submit your answers on the back of a twenty-pound note and post it to our box number – thanks… Either that, or tell us in our (soon to be) lively forums.

The Romans were aware of zero, but didn’t actually think that you could ‘label nothing’.  So, instead of inheriting a numbering system from the Romans, what they left us was Roman Numerals.

You see the concept of a number zero was heretical to the Romans, and not just to the Romans either. The ancient Greeks considered the number zero to be more of a philosophical concept than an actual number. The ‘Axiom of Archimedes’ (c 300 BC) states that if you add two identical numbers to each other, then the result had to be a different number. Thus; one plus one is two.  Zero broke this axiom because zero plus zero equals zero. 

Think of it like the colour black – is black really a colour? It could be argued that black isn’t a colour at all. Black is simply what there is when there is no colour. 

As for creating the Ultrapedia Library then, the most important thing the Romans left us was a system of printing dates that leaves a lot of people perplexed even to this day. 

Roman Numerals therefore are prevalent on the title page you see in the Library Browse area of the website. Lower case numerals are also used in many ‘Prefaces’ of the books in the library. 

The Roman numerals on the title page pertain to either the books publication year or the ‘volume number’ of ‘multivolume books’. This then, is one of the reasons we ‘top and tail’ the books – we cannot be certain that the OCR Farm has correctly recognized the date of the book. 

Eg: MDCCCLXXIX (1879) is a bad candidate for OCR. We therefore manually add the books publication date. More problems caused by numerals crop up when it comes to creating a coherent numbering system for recognised books. 

Eg: The first page in the recognised edition of the book is (almost) always the ‘new title page’ as described earlier in this blog. While the actual first page of the printed book could easily be page 20, 30, or even 100 if the print version (original) had an extensive preface or other leader pages – dedications, printers notes, errata, table of contents etc.

Thus the ensuing chaos that Roman Numerals has left in the Ultrapedia Library is largely unresolved. Please tune-in later for more details…

Admiral Nelson on OCR Techniques

In the run up to the New Year I planned for my long awaited new years hangover about eight weeks in advance. I know it’s only one night off, but the debilitating effects of alcohol are possibly greater on someone of my fragile stature – probably due to my person being thoroughly irradiated by the warm glow generated from the four enormous flat-screens that have become more a home than my bed this last year.

I also think that a persons proximity to so many millions of pixels tends to have a significant effect on a persons ability to construct long sentences with proper punctuation as well. Add the traditional lashings of Dublins finest stout – extra cold, and available over most of a 24 hour period at a gentle hostelry such as the New Inn Llanrwst – my local pub – expertly proferred by Veronica and Jim, and nothing but the finest friends and witness here the results. …A rambling diatribe with about as much to do with the subject matter of The eponymous Admiral as George W. Bush has to do with global cooling.

But still, the preparation for New Years Eve was fun. Around November then, I started stocking up for xmas by preparing a few thousand more books for the ever-ravenous OCR farm to ingest. The first part of this herculean task was to get a new chair as I had worn the spots off my old one. Secondly, a modest investment from the iTunes store of the complete Aubrey Matururin series Audiobooks. Namely the complete series as written by the inestimable Patrick O’Brien narrated (too small a word really) by the fabulous Patrick Tull.

Simmer gently for 60 days, and then bingo – two months later you get to enjoy New Years Eve drunk in Llanrwst, Wales.The sobering up part has been quite a sobering experience in itself as well. In the general incoherence hereabouts I could barely even mutter -‘mines a double’ so I declined to celebrate the sucessful launch of the beta Pointmore site, so instead I revisited a bunch of OCR related forums I haunt to see what was occuring.

Among the things I pondered in this giddy state were; Could I get a passport for BookLand, and could 13 be ISBN’s lucky number. Was the Dewey Decimal System dead yet?, or should I create a new cataloging system for books by taking an ISBN (ASIN) change a couple of letters – ABSINTH sounded nice…

All the time Patrick Tulls deliciously naval voice rasped and purred over the speakers recounting the adventures of Aubrey and Maturin, and me pausing playback to cross-check facts from the books by inputting interesting and unique sounding events and names into the search engine to see what pops up.

Successes were many and notable. I’ll dig around for the exact book this particular factoid comes from later, but for now please imagine me sweating clouds of Guinness (hic) and the two Patricks spinning in my head when I came across a letter from one of the other captains who were co-victorious with Nelson at the Battle of the Nile and how this particular Captain had sawn off the mainmast of a captured vessel – one that was responsible for an injury Nelson acquired in that battle.

This fine naval gentleman then instructed his ships carpenter to ‘carve from the mast a casket for Nelson’.

Within the Ultrapedia library is the correspondence between Nelson and his as yet un-named benefactor, and as a nice touch a note from his bosun saying that the Admiral was so delighted with his his new ‘trophy casket’ that he stood it on-end for all to see in the captains cabin.

Still Patrick Tulls charming buzz-saw rasp drones on – 28 audiobooks back to back is quite a task to simply listen to – my cap is off to Patrick Tull here, but, like a long-lost foghorn through the cloudy mists of recollection gathered Nelsons famous battle technique – ‘to blazes with tactics – just go straight at ’em’.

I pondered the wisdom of these words, and concluded that I had ‘done a Nelson’ and gone straight at the problems of OCR, without sometimes even realising that hundreds of groups and forums had been discussing the various merits and demerits of OCR technology. Still, if I hadn’t had done this, I wouldn’t have been able to relate the ‘gem’ I found about Nelsons casket would I…?

And then I poured myself another drink. Raised it to the four plasma screens that surround me and remembered I hadn’t even wished the readers of this blog a Happy New Year.

Better late than never – have a great 2008 !!

35 Thousand recognised books… and counting