Category Archives: Chronologies

A collection of selected chronologies from the Ultrapedia Library

Chronology from “Arctic Experiences”

Gunniborn, a Norseman, from Iceland, visits Greenland 872
Eric the Red, son of a Norwegian jarl, settled in Greenland near present site of Jalianaahaab 983
Eric visits Iceland, and returns with a number of emigrants, with the purpose of settling a colony in Greenland, at Brattahlid 985
Lief, son of Eric, visits Norway, receives Christianity, returns, and proclaims it in Greenland toward the close of the ninth century, about 998
Thjodhilda, wife of Eric, builds a church 1002
Bishop Eric, a Christian prelate, visits Greenland 1120
Bishop Arnold founds an Episcopal see at Garder, Greenland, and builds a cathedral 1126
Colony attacked by the Skraellings, or Esquimaux, who burn and pillage the settlement, killing many inhabitants 1349
Voyage of the two Venetian brothers Zeni, who reported land in the north-west. 1380
Bishop’s See abandoned in Greenland, and Eric’s descendants utterly wiped out and exterminated soon after by the Esquimaux 1409
Voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot, passing the Arctic circle to the northwest passages
The brothers Cortereal made three voyages to the north-west 1500-’03
Polar expedition, under Sir Hugh Willoughby, discovered part of Nova Zembla; the whole party subsequently frozen to death on the coast of Lapland 1503
J. Carrier, a French navigator, made several voyages of discovery to the north and west 1534-’42
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on return from north-west voyage of exploration, foundered at sea 1578
Captain John Davis explored the east and west coasts of Davis Strait. 1585-’88
William Barentz made three Arctic voyages to the north-east 1594-’96
Captain Weymouth sailed from England, under a contract to find a north-west passage to China, or forfeit all pay for his voyage 1602
Henry Hudson made four voyages of discovery, sailing due north, north-east and north-west; found new and valuable lands, extending from New York to north of Hudson Bay. On last voyage, deserted by mutinous crew, set adrift in a small boat with six sick sailors, and voluntarily accompanied by his carpenter, John King, he and his seven companions perished at sea. 1607-’10
Jan Mejan, a Dutch navigator, discovers Arctic island of that name 1611
Sir Thomas Button, the first to sail across Hudson Bay from east to west. His name obliterated from modern maps 1612
William Baffin and Fotherby, in 1614, and Baffin and Bylot, in 1616, sailed 1615 through Baffin Bay to month of Lancaster Sound. Their reported discoveries treated as myths 1614-16
Captain Luke Fox discovered Fox Channel, and penetrated other waters to the north and west; could have accomplished much more had he not been trammeled by official “orders.” Captain James sailed on a similar expedition the same day in May 1681, ’82
A Dutch navigator discovers and names, after himself, Gillies Land 1707
Vitus Behring, a Russian naval officer, a Dane by birth, discovers Behring Strait and Behring Island 1741
Middleton discovers Wager Bay 1742
The British Parliament offered £20,000 for the discovery of a north-west passage to the Pacific via Hudson Bay 1748
A private expedition to the north-west, under Captain Charles Swayne, sails in the Argo from Philadelphia 1754
Hearne made three land-journeys north of American continent, discovered the Coppermine River, which he traced to its source 1772
A private expedition, under Captain Wilder, in the brig Diligence, sails from Virginia in search of the north-west passage. 1772
Captain Phipps (Lord Mulgrave) makes a voyage of Polar discovery to the north-east 1778
British Parliament offers £20,000 for the discovery of any through passage to the North Pacific, and £5000 to any party getting within one degree west of the magnetic pole 1776
Captain Cook, the circumnavigator, attempts the passage by Behring Strait, without success 1776
Mackenzie found and traced the river of that name 1789
William Scoresby, a Greenland whaler, makes a remarkable voyage due north. Reports open water “beyond the ice-barrier” 1806
Scoresby stimulates Arctic research by numerous publications 1806-18
Expeditions under Captain Ross and Lieutenant Parry 1818
Captain Buchan and Lieutenant (afterward Sir J.) Franklin sail with a thoroughly equipped expedition, the first scientific party sent out by the British Government 1818
Captain Parry and Lieutenant Lyon, in the Hecla and Griper; Parry sailed north-west through Barrow Strait and beyond, and claimed the Government reward of £5000 1820
Remarkable land-journeys of Lieutenant Franklin and Dr. Richardson, also Midshipmen Hood and Back (afterward Sir George), from York Factory to Cape Turnagain 1819-22
Baron Von Wrangel makes his famous sledge-journey, and reported open water in high northern latitude, known as ” Wrangel Sea” 1820-’23
Clavering, with Colonel Sabine, go to Spitsbergen and Greenland in 1823
Captain Beechey, in the Blossom, goes through Behring Strait, and follows the coast easterly to Barrow Point 1823, ’24
Captain Parry made improvement in compasses to be used in Arctic navigation 1824
Franklin skirts the north coast of America as far west as Return Reef. 1826
Franklin winters with Dr. Richardson at Great Bear Lake; made interesting experiments on terrestrial magnetism, etc 1826, ’27
Captain Beechey makes a second attempt to meet Franklin from the Pacific side, and fails 1827
Parry makes another voyage to the north-east; travels in sledges north of Spitsbergen, and drifts foster south than he travels north 1827
A private expedition, under patronage of Sir Felix Booth, sails under Captain John Ross in the Victory, in which steam was first used in Arctic exploration 1829
Sir John Ross finds and fixes magnetic pole; English “union-jack” planted upon it by his nephew, James C. Ross 1831
Captain Ross abandons his vessel, after wintering three years in the Arctic regions, builds boats, drags them overland to the coast; .put to sea; picked up by a whaler in July, 1833
Lieutenant Back and Dr. King go overland from Fort Resolution in search of Ross 1833
Lieutenant Back discovers and traces the Great Fish, or Back, River 1833-35
The Hudson Bay Company send out Messrs. Dease and Simpson, who make valuable discoveries on a land and boat journey 1887, 38
Sir John Franklin, in the Erebus, and Captain Crozier, in the Terror, sail in the spring of. 1845
The Erebus and Terror last seen by Captain Dannet, master of the whaler Prince of Wales, in Baffin Bay, near Lancaster Sound July 26,1845
Hudson Bay Company send Dr. John Rae to ascertain if Boothia is an island or peninsula 1846
The Plover, Commander Thomas Moore, and the Herald, Captain Kellet, with Mr. Robert Sheddon in his pleasure-yacht, the Nancy Dawson, sail to Behring Strait, and make boat-journeys eastward, searching for Sir J. Franklin 1848-50
A searching expedition for Sir J. Franklin sails, under Sir James C. Ross, in 1848
The North Star is sent out with supplies 1849
The British Government offers a reward of £20,000 to any party, of any nation, relieving Sir J. Franklin’s expedition 1849
The British Government sends out eight vessels, with several tendere, to continue the search 1850
Mr. Henry Grinnell, of New York, furnishes and equips the Advance and Rescue, to aid in the search for Franklin. The United States Government orders Lieutenants De Haven and Griffith to command the vessels 1850
Captain M’Clure, in the Investigator, and Captain Collinson, in the Enterprise, go on the search through Behring Strait. The north-west passage solved by M’Clure (by observation) October 31,1850
The Lady Franklin is sent out by wife of Sir J. Franklin, under Captain Penny 1850 Lady Franklin organizes another expedition to sail in the yacht Prince Albert, of 89 tons. Mr. William P. Snow, of New York, goes to Aberdeen, and sails in her as amateur explorer, with Captain Forsyth 1850
Captain Ommany, of the Assistance, discovers the first traces of Sir J. Franklin’s party at Cape Riley. August 23,1850
At Beechey Island Lieutenant Sherrard Osborne first fonnd dibris of Franklin’s first winter encampment, and three graves of sailors belonging to Erebus and Terror August 25,1850
Lieutenant De Haven, in Advance, arrived at Beechey Island August 27,1850
Ten of the searching vessels, drawn as by a common instinct, without appointed rendezvous, met at Beechey Island August 29,1850
Leigh Smith, in English yacht, reaches lat. 81° 18/ sailing north-east 1851
Captain Wilkes, United States Navy, memorialized Congress for appropriation of $50,000 to fit out a sledge-expedition to aid in the search 1851
Captain Kennedy, with young French volunteer, Bellot, sails in Prince Albert. 1851 Captain William Penny discovers sea to the north of Wellington Channel; names Grinnell Land Albert Land, thinking it unknown 1851
Sir Edward Belcher sails with a fleet of five vessels, to continue the search 1852
Captain Inglefield, with Rene’ Bellot, sails in the Phoenix 1852
Dr. E. K. Kane, late surgeon of the Advance, is sent out in that vessel, fitted up at expense of Mr. H. Grinnell, of New York, and Mr. George Peabody, of London; the latter paid £10,000 1853
Captain M’Clure, in the Investigator, from Behring Strait, meets Lieutenant Pim near Dealy Island, the latter having entered the Arctic regions through Baffin Bay April 19,1853
British searching ship Resolute, of Sir Edward Belcher’s fleet, abandoned 1853
Captain Collinson, in the Enterprise, completes the passage (solving northwest) in his ship twenty days after M’Clure; turns to the south-east, makes many discoveries, and brings home relics of Sir John Franklin’s party 1850-54
Sir John Franklin’s name stricken from the Navy List March 13,1854
Sir Edward Belcher orders five good ships to be abandoned 1854
The Resolute, one of Sir Edward Belcher’s fleet, starts on a drift of a thousand miles, from near Dealy Island to Cape Mercy 1854, 55
Sir Edward Belcher and officers court-martialed in England; all honorably acquitted, except Sir Edward, “whose sword was returned to him in significant silence” 1854, ’56
Captain M’Clure knighted, and Captain Collinson receives medal of honor 1854
Dr. Kane, in brig Advance, explores east coast of Smith Sound; discovers and names Humboldt Glacier; surveys eight hundred miles of coast of Greenland and Washington Land, which he finds and names; abandons Advance; comes down with crew to Upernavik in small boats, which he reaches August 6; announces discovery by Morton of the ” Polar Sea ” 1853-’55
Lieutenant Hartstene, in United States ship, searches for Dr. Kane, passing above Rensselaer Harbor; returns to Upernavik, and takes on board Kane and his company 1855
Messrs. Anderson and Stuart find relics of the Franklin expedition at Montreal Island 1855
Lieutenants Meacham and M’Clintock make separate Arctic land-journeys of nearly fifteen hundred miles each 1854, ’55
Captain Tyson, then boat-steerer on board bark George Henry, of New London, Captain James Buddington, first sighted the Resolute near Cape Mercy, and visited it with three companions, bringing back relics to his vessel.. August, 1855
The Resolute taken possession of by Captain Buddington, and brought to the United States 1855
Resolute refitted, and presented to Queen Victoria by Lieutenant Hartstene, representing the United States, on December 16, “in the name of the American people” 1856
Lady Franklin sends out the steam-yacht Fox, Captain M’Clintock, to make a final search for Sir John 1857
Private expedition of James Lamont, F.G.S., to the north-east 1858
The Fox is beset in the Melville Bay ice-pack, August and September, 1857, and drifts southward until April, 1868
Lieutenant Hobson, of the Fox, found the record of the death of Sir John
Franklin in a cairn at Victory Point. Date of death, June 11,1847 1868
Captain M’Clintock finds two skeletons in a boat, members of Franklin’s party; collects numerous relics, and returns 1859
Dr. Hayes sailed in the steamer United States, from Boston ; made extended land-journey on west coast of Smith Sound and north of it made extensive discoveries of new lands and connecting waters; planted the American flag on the most
northern latitude attained on foot up to that date.. 1860
Captain Parker Snow sailed for Bellot Strait and King William Land 1861
A Government Swedish expedition, under Professor Torell, thoroughly fitted outj and having on board a large number of scientists, naturalists, and students, sailed for the seas north of Spitzbergen May 9,1861
Blomstand finds the sea free of ice to the north of Spitzbergen August 10,1861
CHARLES FRANCIS HALL, an amateur explorer, sailed from New London, Connecticut, in the brig George Henry, to continue the search for survivors of Franklin’s party; lost his vessel, the Rescue; explored Frobisher Strait; found the ” strait” to be a bay; brought back many relics of the old navigator 1860-62
Charles Francis Hall makes a second voyage to Hudson Bay, north shore, in the bark Monticello, with only two Esquimaux companions; increases his native company; adds five white sailors; explores to ttie north and west, and gains much information respecting the Franklin party 1864
Edward Whymper, a member of the London ” Alpine Club,” went to Greenland, and made interesting explorations 1867
Baron Schilling projected an expedition by the Behring Strait route, expecting to skirt the Siberian coast, and find the Polar Sea, or a Polar continent, which he believes exists 1867
Captain Long, of bark Nile, in lat. 70° 40′ N., 178° 15′ W., explored over 3° of an extensive land, and examined an extinct volcano 2480 feet high 1867
Captain Raynor, of ship Reindeer, explored the same land for over 5° of longitude ; thought it extended for more than 8° of longitude, and north for 120 miles. The south-west cape of this land he reports 25 miles from the Asiatic coast 1867
Captain Lewis, of the Corinthian, landed on this coast in August; found flowers and birds, and indications of coal 1867
Lord Dufferin, in schooner-yacht Foam, made an Arctic voyage to north of Spitzbergen, etc 1867
A Swedish expedition, under Professor Nordenskiold, made interesting discoveries in natural science to the north-east 1868
A Russian merchant—Sidgeoff—sent out a scientific exploring expedition in a screw-steamer June, 1868
A private expedition, sent out by M. A. Rosenthal, a merchant of Bremen, with scientific corps, with eminent astronomer, Dr. J. S. Doest, of Jiilich…. 1868
Captain Blowen, of bark Nautilus, explored north of Spitzbergen to 72° N.; observed land extending west as far as he could see 1868
The Gotha expedition, fonvarded by Mr. Rosenthal, with large screw-steamer Albert, a walrus-hunter, with a crew of fifty-five men, provisioned for fifteen months, with scientific corps, under Dr. Emil Bessel (late of Polaris), returned after an absence of only four months 1869
Charles Francis Hall returns from his Franklin search expedition, after five years residence with the Esquimaux, with 150 relics of the Franklin party September 1,1869
Seven Arctic expeditions organized and forwarded from different parts of Europe to Arctic regions 1869
Dr. A. Peterman organized a party which sailed in the Germania, Captain Hegeman; and sailing-vessel Hansa, Captain Eoldewy—thirty-one officers and men, and six scientists. Left Bremerhaven for North Pole, via east coast of Greenland, provisioned for two years 1869
Captain Palliser, private English gentleman, goes to the north, between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla 1869
J. Lamont, F.G.S., author of “Arctic Zoology” and M.P. for Buteshire, fits out his own steam-yacht, at a cost of nearly $50,000; sailed for the north from Caledonian Canal 1869
Mr. Robert Brown, an English naturalist, explored extensively within Arctic circle in Greenland. Printed report on Arctic fauna 1869
Steamship Panther, from Boston, with Bradford, the artist and photographer, Dr. Hayes, and others, penetrate the Melville ice-pack, in pursuit of artistic icebergs 1869
Dr. Hayes, in the steamer Panther, in boats, and on foot, makes interesting archaeological discoveries relating to the early Norse settlements in Greenland, summer of 1869
A French expedition went from north of Europe to Arctic regions, to observe and collect facts relating to the aurora borealis, with the following eminent savants: MM. Lottin, Bravais, Lillehook, and Silgestrom, with M. Bevalet as artist. 1868, ’69
The sailing vessel Hansa, of the German expedition, was lost on the east coast of Greenland, in lat. 70° 507, with a valuable collection of fauna and flora and scientific records, on the 23d of October, 1869. Her captain and crew, 14 in number, had collected provisions and fuel, with three boats, on the ice, on which also was a small house. They saw the Hansa sink; then the ice drifted with them to the south. On January 2, 1870, the ice-floe was broken up in a storm, and greatly reduced in size. The party divided, each taking a boat on January 11, to be ready for emergencies. They took to the sea and worked southward in their boats, after drifting 193 days, and crossing over 9° of latitude. Early in June they rounded Cape Farewell, and reached the Danish mission station, at Friedrichsthal, and from thence obtained passage home to Bremen 1869, ’70
An excellently planned French Arctic exploring expedition, under the savant Gustavo Lambert, was prevented from sailing by the outbreak of war with Germany; its projector, Lambert, killed in battle 1870
United States Congress makes appropriation for outfit of the United States North Polar expedition, nnder Captain C. F. Hall, the authorizing act being signed by President Grant July 12,1870
Polaris leaves Washington June 10; arrives at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, to be fitted for the voyage June 14,1871
United States steamship Polaris sails from Brooklyn June 29; touches at New London, Connecticut; St. Johns, Newfoundland; and several Greenland ports; and meets the United States steamship Congress, with supplies, at Goodhavn August 10,1871
A French gentleman, Octave Pavy, from San Francisco, sailed to go to the Polar Sea, via the Kuro Siwo 1871
The Polaris reaches the highest northern latitude ever attained by any Teasel
August 30,1871
Goes into winter-quarters at Thank God Harbor, September 3, in highest winter-quarters made by Arctic explorers 1871

Captain Hall starts on a sledge-journey to the north; is absent two weeks; returns in good health to the Polaris October 24,1871 Is immediately taken ill,partially recovers, relapses, and dies November 8, and is buried on the 11th1871

Captain Altman came near King Carl Land; saw no ice at 79° N 1871

A Norwegian whaleman, Elling Carlsen, circumnavigated Nova Zembla; anchored in Ice Haven, 74° 40′, on the south-east shore of most eastern island; found the house erected by William Barentz, the Dutch explorer, two hundred and eighty-seven years before 1871

A Russian Government expedition started from Archangel, and another from the Yenisei River 1871

James Lamont, of England, made three Arctic voyages 1869-71

West Indian fruits and drift-wood found north of Nova Zembla by whalers. 1871, ’72

Swedish Government expedition, under Professor Nordenskiold, sailed, in the Polheen, an iron steamship, with a steam consort, and a brig, in the summer of 1872

Lieutenant Payer, of the Austrian army, and Lieutenant Weyprecht, of the Austrian navy, hired a Norwegian sailing-vessel, and sailed in June for King Carl Land; in 78° found the sea open, and made other valuable discoveries… 1872

An Italian Government steamship accompanied the above expedition to the north cape of Nova Zembla 1872

Captain Nils Jansen, a Norwegian whaler, in a vessel of 26 tons, sailed east of Spitzbergen to bay of King Carl Land; from top of high mountain saw the open water east and north-east; no ice; to the N.N.W. land was visible (the Gillis Land of the old geographers); saw birds, seals, large reindeer, and quantities of drift-wood. Anchored in 79° 8′ N 1872

Arctic exploring ship Polaris breaks, during a violent storm, from the floe to which she is anchored, and is driven in a north-easterly direction by the wind, leaving nineteen persons adrift on the ice October 15,1872

Captain Buddington beaches the Polaris (October 16) at Life-boat Cove, near Littleton Island; abandons the ship, and winters on the main-land 1872-73

Captain Tyson with a party of eighteen souls drift away on an ice-floe; lose sight of the Polaris, and continue to drift a S.S.W. course from October 15, 1872, until the 30th of April, 1873, without serious sickness or loss of life 1872,73

Captain Tyson and party picked up by sealer Tigress, Captain Bartlett; April 30,1873

The United States steamship Frolic sent to bring the party to Washington; took them on board at St. Johns, Newfoundland ; sailed thence May 28 ; arrived at Washington June 5,1873

Official examination of the officers, crew, and Esquimaux rescued by Tigress before a Naval Board of Inquiry, held on board the United States steamship Tallapoosa at Washington, concluded June 16,1873
Imperial Geographical Society of Russia sent sledge exploring party, under the experienced Siberian traveler, M. Tschekanowski, with a two-years’ outfit, to survey the coast of the Polar Ocean in. Arctic Siberia 1873

Captain Baddington and party picked up on Jane 23, by the Scotch whaler

Ravenscraig, Captain Allen, twenty-five miles south-west of Cape York 1873

Captain Allen transfers Captain Buddington, Emil Bessel, and nine others of the party to the whaler Arctic, of Dundee, which arrived with them at that port September 18,1873

Mr. Bryan, the chaplain and astronomer of the Polaris expedition, with two others of the rescued party, transferred to the Scotch whaler Intrepid, and from that to the Erick 1873

News received from the Swedish expedition which sailed in 1872; the spectrum analysis applied by this party to the aurora borealis; wintered in lat 79° 63′, proceeding north in July 1 1873

Professor Nordenskiold’s expedition beset in the ice at Mosel Bay; relieved by Leigh Smith’s party in the summer of 1873

The United States steamship Juniata, Commander Braine, fitted out by Secretary of the Navy, and ordered to sail as a tender and store-ship to the coast of Greenland, with supplies for the Tigress June 12,1878

The sealer Tigress, having been purchased by the United States, and fitted up to go in search of the Polaris and the party remaining in her, sailed from the Brooklyn Navy Yard, under Commander Greer, accompanied by Captain (pro tern, lieutenant United States Navy) Tyson as ice-pilot July 14,1873

The Tigress and Juniata meet at Upernavik August 10; the Tigress sails north on the 11th; meets the steam-launch Little Juniata in Melville Bay 1873

Commander Greer, of the Tigress, finds Captain Buddington’s deserted winter-camp, August 14, near Littleton Island, at Life-boat Cove. Finds Polaris sunk one mile and a half from shore 1873

The searching steamship Tigress returned, touching at Tossac, Upernavik, and Goodhavn for news. August 25, sailed to the west coast to intercept whalers; put into Cumberland Gulf. 1873

The whaler Arctic, having on board Captain Markham, B.R.N., and Dr. Emil Bebsel, visited Fury Beach; found wreck of the British ship Fury, lost by Captain Parry in 1824; also canned provisions in good preservation, and two English muskets bearing date of 1850, probably left by Captain Penny in 1851

August, 1873 Commander Braine, of the Juniata, sends exploring party to north-west side of Disco Island ; coal found in abundance

September, 1873 Leigh Smith’s English expedition in large screw-steamer Diana, at Trenerenberg Bay, July 4. Returned to Scotland in September. Discovered that North Capets an island 1873

Captain Baddington, Emil Bessel, and party arrive at New York October 4; proceed under orders in the United States steamship Tallapoosa to Washington ; examination of the party by Naval Board October-December, 1873

The Juniata returns to New York, arriving October 24,-1873

Steamship Tigress left Cumberland Gulf September 16; four days later experienced a heavy gale, which continued three days; made Cape Desolation September 24; driven to sea in another gale; next day anchored in a small Fiord; repaired engine; took native pilot; made Ivgitut Fiord on the 27th; refitted, and repaired boilers and engine; sailed October 4; struck by heavy gale on the 5th, which lasted till the 8th; after a short abatement, another gale. Returned to St. Johns,

Newfoundland. October 16,1873

Tigress arrived at Brooklyn Navy Yard November 9,1873

A Short History of Rome – Chronology


509-264 B. c.

The conquest of Italy (Chap. IV)

The struggle between the patricians and plebeians Chap. V)

509 The consulship established

508 Treaty with Carthage

498 The dictatorship established

496 The Latins defeated at Lake Regillus

494 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount

493 The tribunate of the plebs established Treaty with the Latins

471 The concilium plebis established – The tribunes increased to ten

462 Bill proposed by Terentilius to publish the laws

451-449 The decemvirate and the twelve tables

449 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount The Valerio-Horatian laws

447 The comitia tributa established

445 The Canuleian marriage law

445-367 Struggle for the consulship; the consular tribunate

443 (or 435) The censorship established

The dates of the regal period and of the early republic are very
B. C. 421 Military quaestors chosen Plebeians eligible to first curule office, the quaestor-ship

405-396 War with Veii

382 Rome taken by the Gauls

377 The Licinian laws

366 A plebeian made consul Praetorship established Curule aedileship established Rise of the nobilitas

358 League with the Latins and Hernicans renewed

356 A plebeian made dictator

348 Treaty with Carthage

343-1 First Samnite war, so-called

340-338 Latin War, and dissolution of the Latin league

339 The Publilian laws

338 A plebeian made praetor Antium founded, first maritime colony

326 The proconsulship established

326-304 Second Samnite war

321 Roman army captured at the Caudine Pass

312-308 Reforms of Appius Claudius Caecus

312 The Via Appia and the Aqua Appia built

311 First duoviri navales appointed About

300 The Ovinian law

298-290 Third Samnite war

295 Battle of Sentinum

287 The Hortensian law

281-272 War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus

280 Battle of Heraclea

279 Battle of Asculum

275 Battle of Beneventum

Colonies planted in southern Italy

268 Silver coinage introduced

THE REPUBLIC 264-133 B. c.

The conquest of the Mediterranean Lands (Chap. VI) and its effect on Rome (Chap. VII)

264-241 First Punic war

263 Treaty with Hiero

260 Battle of Mylae

256 Battle off Ecnomus
Regulus besieges Carthage

249 Roman defeat at Drepana

247 Hamilcar Barcas commands in Sicily

341 Treaty made Sicily acquired

241 (7) Centuriate comitia reformed

240 Livius Andronicus brings out first Latin play

239 Birth of Ennius

238 Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica

238-222 Gallic wars

237 Hamilcar develops Spain

234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato

229-228 Ilyrian war

227 Number of praetors increased to four

219 Hannibal takes Saguntum

218-201 Second Punic war

218 Hannibal enters Italy Battles of the Ticinus and the Trebia

217 Battle of Lake Trasimene

216 Battle of Cannae

215 Alliance between Hannibal and Philip

215-205 First Macedonian war

212 Marcellus takes Syracuse

211-206 P. Cornelius Scipio subdues Spain

207 Battle of the Metaurus

204 Scipio crosses to Africa

202 Battle of Zama

201 Treaty made

200-Literary activity of Plautus

About 200 Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria Romanized

200-196 Second Macedonian war

197 Battle of Cynoscephalae

197 Provinces of Hither and Farther Spain established

196 Independence of Greece proclaimed

195 Cato’s unsuccessful defence of the Appian law against extravagance

192-189 War with Antiochus III

190 Battle of Magnesia, followed by treaty

171-167 Third Macedonian war

168 Battle of Pydna

159 Death of Terence

27 B. C. – A. D. 14 Reign of Augustus

17 B. c. Publication of the Aeneid

35-13 B. c. Literary activity of Horace

A. D. 139 Completion of Hadrian’s Mausoleum

161-180 Reign of Marcus Aurelius

162-166 War with Parthia

167-168 Italy ravaged by the plague

167-175 First war with the Marcomanni

177 Repression of Christianity by M. Aurelius begins

178-180 Second war with the Marcomanni

180-192 Reign of Commodus

193 Reigns of Pertinax and Julianus


A. D. 193-337

From Septimius Severus to Constantine (Chap. XIXI)

193-311 Reign of Septimius Severus apinian, the jurist, flourishes

211-217 Reign of Caracalla

213 All freemen made Roman citizens

217-218 Reign of Macrinus

218-222 Reign of Elagabalus

222-235 Reign of Alexander Severus

235-238 Reign of Maximinus

238-244 Reign of Gordian

244-249 Reign of Philip

249-251 Reign of Decius

250 Severe treatment of the Christians

251-253 Reign of Gallus

253 Reign of Aemilianus

253-260 Reign of Valerian with his son Gallienus

253-268 Reign of Gallienus, for 7 years as his father’s coleague

260 Valerian made prisoner by the Persians

268-270 Reign of Claudius

270 Reign of Quintillus

270-275 Reign of Aurelian

272 Aurelian takes Palmyra

273 Aurelian receives the submission of Tetricus

275-276 Reign of Tacitus

276 Reign of Florianus

276-282 Reign of Probus

A. D. 282-284 Reign of Cams

384-305 Reign of Diocletian

286-305 Diocletian and Maximian rule as August

305-306 Constantius and Galerius colleagues

312 Galerius’s edict of toleration

306-324 Civil wars between aspirants for the throne

312 Battle at the Mulvian Bridge, and Constantine’s acceptance of Christianity

324-337 Constantine, sole emperor

325 The Council at Nicaea

330 Dedication of Constantinople as the imperial residence


A. D. 337-476

The Barbarian Invasions and the Western World in the Fifth Century (Chap. XIV)

337-350 The successors of Constantine quarrel

351 Constantius defeats his rivals and becomes sole emperor

351-361 Reign of Constantius

355 Julian associated with him in the government

361-363 Julian reigns alone

363-364 Reign of Jovian

364-375 Valentinian emperor in the West

364-378 Valens emperor in the East

375 Valentinian II (375-392) and Gratian (375-383)
made rulers in the West

376 The Visigoths cross the Danube

378 Battle of Adrianople

379 Theodosius emperor in the East

383 Maximus (383-388) succeeds Gratian

392-394 Eugenius emperor in the West

394 Theodosius defeats Eugenius and becomes sole
emperor (394-395)

395 The Empire divided, never to be reunited

402 Alaric invades Italy

406 Vandals, Suevi, and Burgundians invade Gaul

410 Alaric takes Rome

A. D. 425 The Visigoths settle in Gaul and Spain

429 The Vandals invade Africa

440-461 Leo the Great, pope

443 The Burgundians occupy south-eastern Gaul

449 The Saxons invade Britain

451 Attila defeated at Chalons

455 The Vandals sack Rome

476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor in Rome, abdicates Odoacer called patrician of Italy by Eastern emperor


A. D. 476-800

Reorganization of the Empire in the West (Chap. XV)

486 Clovis defeats the Romans at Soissons

493-553 The Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy, established by Theodoric

496 Clovis accepts Catholic Christianity

537-565 Justinian emperor in the East The Code compiled

533-534 Belisarius regains Africa

553 Italy restored to the Eastern empire

568 The Lombards invade Italy

590-604 Gregory the Great, pope The Christianization of Britain begins

610-641 Heraclius drives back the Persians

622 The Hegira

687 Pippin becomes ruler of all the Franks

711 The Mohammedans enter Spain

73a Battle of Poictiers

751 The Mayor of the Palace made king

768-814 Reign of Charlemagne

774 Charlemagne made king of the Lombards

772-803 Saxony conquered

787 Annexation of Bavaria

778-812 Conquest of northern Spain

800 Charlemagne crowned emperor at Rome

A Short History of Paper Money and Banking – Chronology

BANKING FROM 1780 TO 1810-11.


Of Banking from 1790 to 1810-11,

In Vol. II of the American edition of the Edinburgh Cyclopedia, published in 1813, the following table is given, ” to exhibit in one view the names of the Banks most deserving of notice, the time of their institution, and the amount of their capital.” The table is not complete, but it shows the time in which the Banking system was introduced into the different States.

Names. Instituted. Capital.

Bank of North America, Pa. 1781-2 $ 2,000,000

Massachusetts Bank at Boston, Mass. 1784 1,600,000

Bank of New York, N. Y. 1784 950,000

Bank of Maryland, Md. 1790 300,000

Providence Bank, R. I. 1791 400,000

Bank of Albany, N. Y. 1792 260.000

Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1792 640,000

Union Bank of Boston, Mass. 1792 1,200,000

New Hampshire Bank, N. H. 1792 100,000

Bank of Alexandria, Va. 1792 500,000

Hartford Bank, Conn. 1792 930,000

Union Bank, New London, Conn. 1792 500,000

New Haven Bank, Conn. 1792 400,000

Bank of Columbia, N.Y. 1793 160,000

Bank of Columbia, D. C. 1793 500,000

Bank of Pennsylvania, Pa. 1793 3,000,000

Bank of Nantucket, Mass. 1795 100,000

Bank of Delaware, Del. 1795 110,000

Bank of Baltimore, Md. 1795 1,200,000

Middletown Bank, Conn. . 1795 400,000

Bank of Rhode Island, R. I. 1795 100,000

Norwich Bank, Conn. 1796 200,000

Manhattan Bank, N. Y. 1799 2,000,000

Portland Bank, Me. 1799 300,000

Essex Bank, Salem, Mass. 1799 300,000

Washington Bank, Westerly, R. I. 1800 50,000

Bank of Bristol, 1800- 120,000

Exchange Bank, Providence, R. I. 1801 400,000

Farmers’ Bank, Lansioburgh, N. Y. 1801 75,000

State Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1801 800,000

Maine Bank, Portland, Me. 1802 300,000

New Hampshire Union Bank, N.H. 1802 200,000

Names. Instituted. Capital.

Lin and Ken Bank, Wiscasset, Me. 1802 $ 200,000

Kentucky Insurance Company, Ky. 1802 150,000

Merchants Bank, N.Y. 1803 1,250,000

Bedford Bank, atN. B., Mass. 1803 150,000

New York State Bank, N. Y. 1803 460,000

Newburyport Bank, Mass. 1803 550,000

Saco Bank, Mass. 1803 100,000

Albany Mercantile N. Y. 1803 25,000

Plymouth Bank Mass. 1803 100,000

Boston Bank, Mass. 1803 1,800,000

Stafford Bank, at Dover, Mass. 1803 150,000

Philadelphia Bank, Pa- 1803 2,000,000

Miami Exporting Comp., Cinn. O. 1803 200,000

Salem Bank, Mass. 1803 200,000

Roger Williams Bank, R. I. 1803 150,000

Newport Bank, R. . 1803 120,000

Warren Bank, R. I. 1803 68,000

Exeter Bank, N H. 200,000

Union Bank of Maryland, Md. 1804 3,000,000

Bank of Cape Fear, N. C. 1804 350,000

Baokof Newhern, N C. 1804 300,000

Newark Banking and Ins., Co. N J. 1804 225,000

Trenton Bank N J 1804 300,000

Hallowell and Augusta Bank, Me. 1804 200,000

Worcester Bank, Mass. 1804 150,000

Nantucket Pacific Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

Marblehead Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

Rhode Island Union Bank, R. I. 1804 150,000

Smithfield Union Bank, R. I. 1805 50,000

Narragansett Bank, R. 1. 1805 60,000

Rhode Island Central Bank, R. I. 1805 60,000

Bank of Virginia, Va. 1805 1,500,000

Mechanics’ Bank, Baltimore, Md. 1806 1,000,000

Bank of Chilicothe, Ohio 1806 100,000

Bridgeport Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

Derby Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

Bank of Kentucky, Ky. 1807 1,000,000

Bank of Nashville, Ten. 1807 500,000

Bank of Marietta, Ohio 1807 100,000

Farmers Bk. of the State of Del., D. 1807 500,000

New Brunswick Bank, N. J. 1807 150,000

Farmers and Mechanics Bank, Pa. 1807 1,250,000

Hagerstown Bank, Md. 1807 250,000

Mohawk Bank, N. Y. 1807 200,000

New London Bank, Conn. 1807 200,000

Hudson Bank, N. Y. 1808 300,000

Making the best use of your time.

When we come across a book with a well recognised ‘chronology’ like the example below we extract it while leaving the original in place. Later in the workflow we load the tables into the excellent “BeeDocuments Timeline” The example below is copied from “A Short History of Greek Literature”

All dates for Greek events earlier than the middle of the seventh century B.C. are legendary or conjectural.


776 Traditional date of the First Olympiad.

680 CALLINUS of Ephesus, elegiac poet.

676 ? TERPANDER of Lesbos, musician and melic poet.

650 ARCHILOCHUS of Paros, iambic, elegiac, and melic poet. ALCMAN of Sparta, choral melic poet.

648 Eclipse of the sun mentioned by Archilochus (see p. 85).

630 MIMNERMUS of Colophon, elegiac poet.

625 SEMONIDES of Amorgos, iambic poet.
ARION of Lesbos, choral melic poet.

600 ALCAEUS of Lesbos, melic poet.
SAPPHO of Lesbos, melic poet.
STESICHORUS of Himera, choral melic poet.

599 SOLON of Athens, elegiac poet, 639-599.

590 THALES of Miletus, philosopher.

570 ANAXIMANDER of Miletus, philosopher.

550 ANAXIMENES of Miletus, philosopher.
CADMUS of Miletus, logographer.
PHERECYDES of Syros, philosopher.

546 CYRUS takes Sardis. Fall of Croesus.

540 PHOCYLIDES of Miletus, elegiac poet.
DEMODOCUS of Leros, elegiac poet.
ANACREON of Teos, melic poet.
HIPPONAX of Ephesus, choliambic satirist.
IBYCUS of Rhegium, melic poet.
XENOPHANES of Colophon, philosopher and elegiac poet.
1 The date given is the JloruU, placed approxiroately at forty years of age, to which are added, when known, the dates of birth and death. Authors whose century is unknown are omitted.

534 First tragic contest at the City Dionysia, in Athens.
THESPIS of Attica, tragic poet.

530 PYTHAGORAS of Samos, philosopher.

520 THEOGNIS of Megara, elegiac poet.
LASUS of Hermione, choral melic poet.
CORINNA of Boeotia, choral melic poet.

516 SIMONIDES of Ceos, choral melic poet, 556-468.

510 Democracy established at Athens.

508 The Attic State assumes control of the tragic choruses.

500 HERACLEITUS of Ephesus, philosopher.
HECATAEUS of Miletus, logographer. CHOERILUS of Athens, tragic poet. PRATINAS of the Peloponnesus, tragic poet.

494 Fall of Miletus. PHRYNICHUS of Athens, tragic poet.

490 Battle of Marathon.
PANYASIS of Halicarnassus, epic poet.

485 AESCHYLUS of Athens, tragic poet, 525-456.

480 EPICHARMUS of Cos, comic poet.
PINDAR of Thebes, choral melic poet.
Battle of Salamis.

479 Battle of Plataea.

475 PARMENIDES of Elea, philosopher and poet.

468 BACCHYLIDES of Ceos, choral melic poet.

460 CHIONIDES of Athens, comic poet.
MAGNES of Athens, comic poet.
ANAXAGORAS of Clazomenae, philosopher.

456 SOPHOCLES of Athens, tragic poet, 496-405.

450 PHRYNIS of Lesbos, musician.
GORGIAS of Leontini, sophist and rhetorician. CRATES of Athens, comic poet. ZENO of Elea, philosopher. EMPEDOCLES of Agrigentum, poet and philosopher.

444 HERODOTUS of Halicarnassus, historian. PROTAGORAS of Abdera, sophist and grammarian. CRATINUS of Athens, comic poet.

440 ANTIPHON of Athens, orator. EURIPIDES of Athens, tragic poet. MELISSUS of Samos. philosopher.

440 SOPHRON of Syracuse, writer of mimes.

435 LEUCIPPUS of Abdera ?, philosopher.

431 Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.
PERICLES of Athens, statesman and orator.

430 HIPPIAS of Elis, sophist.
HELLANICUS of Lesbos, historian.
PHERECRATES of Athens, comic poet.
THUCYDIDES of Athens, historian.
HIPPOCRATES of Cos, writer on medicine.

429 SOCRATES of Athens, philosopher, 469-399.

425 THRASYMACHUS of Chalcedon, sophist and rhetorician.

420 DEMOCRITUS of Abdera, philosopher.
PRODICUS of Ceos, sophist.

415 The Sicilian Expedition.
AGATHON of Athens, tragic poet.
EUPOLIS of Athens, comic poet.
CRITIAS of Athens, poet and statesman.
ARISTOPHANES of Athens, comic poet.

412 THEODORUS of Byzantium, rhetorician.

411 Revolution of the Four Hundred.

406 Death of Euripides.

405 PLATO of Athens, comic poet.

404 ANTIMACHUS of Colophon, epic poet.

403 End of the Peloponnesian War.

400 TIMOTHEUS of Miletus, citharoede.
ANDOCIDES of Athens, orator. LYSIAS of Athens, rhetorician and speechwright.

399 Death of Socrates.
EUCLEIDES of Megara, philosopher.

395 ISOCRATES of Athens, rhetorician and publicist.

394 XENOPHON of Athens, historian.

387 PLATO of Athens, philosopher, 427-347.

380 ANTISTHENES of Athens, philosopher.
ISAEUS of Chalcis, speechwright.
ARISTIPPUS of Cyrene, philosopher.

368 ANTIPHANES of Asia Minor ?, comic poet.

362 DIOGENES of Sinope, philosopher.

354 ALEXIS of Thurii, comic poet

350 EPHORUS of Cyme, historian.

350 THEOPOMPUS of Chios, historian. LYCURGUS of Athens, orator.

349 AESCHINES of Athens, orator.
HYPEREIDES of Athens, orator.

344 ARISTOTLE of Stageira, philosopher, 384-322.

343 DEMOSTHENES of Athens, orator, 383-322.

338 Battle of Chaeronea.

337 DIPHILUS of Sinope, comic poet.

332 THEOPHRASTUS of Lesbos, philosopher.

331 Foundation of Alexandria.

323 Death of Alexander.

320 PHILEMON of Soli, comic poet.
DEINARCHUS of Corinth, speechwright.

305 TIMAEUS of Tauromenium, historian.

302 EPICURUS of Samos, philosopher.
MENANDER of Athens, comic poet.

300 DEMETRIUS of Phalerum, orator.
ZENO of Citium, philosopher. DOURIS of Samos, historian.

291 CLEANTHES of Assos, philosopher.

290 HEGESIAS of Magnesia, rhetorician.
PHILETAS of Cos, elegiac poet.
ASCLEPIADES of Samos, melic poet and epigrammatist.

280 ? ISYLLUS of Epidaurus, choral melic poet.
LYCOPHRON of Chalcis, epic and tragic poet.

276 LEONIDAS of Tarentum, epigrammatist.

275 THEOCRITUS of Syracuse, bucolic poet.

270 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, Alexandrian epic and elegiac poet

260 ARATUS of Soli, writer of didactic epic.
HERODAS of Cos, writer of mimes.

236 ERATOSTHENES of Cyrene. librarian and encyclopaedist.

234 EUPHORION of Chalcis, epic poet.

222 RHIANUS of Crete, epic poet.

180 FNICANDER of Colophon, epic poet.

180 CRATES of Mallus, Homeric critic.
ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, critic and grammarian.

170 POLYBIUS of Megalopolis, historian.

150 MOSCHUS of Syracuse, bucolic poet
BION of Smyrna, bucolic poet
150 MELEAGER of Gadara, epigrammatist and anthologist.

55 PHILODEMUS of Gadara, Epicurean and epigrammatist.

40 DIODORUS of Sicily, historian.

20 STRABO of Amasia, historian and geographer.

8 DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus, historian and critic.

A.D. 50 CRINAGORAS of Mitylene, epigrammatist. yy JOSEPH us of Jerusalem, historian.

80 Dio CHRYSOSTOMUS of Prusa, sophist and lecturer.

90 PLUTARCH of Chaeronea, moralist and biographer.

100 EPICTETUS of Phrygia, philosopher.

130 APPIAN of Alexandria, historian.
ARRIAN of Nicomedia, historian.

140 HERODES ATTICUS of Athens, sophist.

150 PAUSANIAS of Lydia ?, topographer.

161 MARCUS AURELIUS, emperor and philosopher.

165 LUCIAN of Samosata, sophist and satirist.

169 ARISTEIDES of Mysia, sophist.

180 OPPIAN of Cilicia, writer of didactic epic.

180 ? ALCIPHRON, epistolographer and sophist.

180 CASSIUS DIO of Nicaea, historian.

210 PHILOSTRATUS of Athens, sophist and biographer.

220 AELIAN of Praeneste, sophist.1

225 ? ATHENAEUS of Naucratis, grammarian and writer on minor antiquities.

225 ? BABRIUS, writer of fables in choliambics.

244 PLOTINUS of Lycopolis, Neo-Platonist philosopher.

250 ? DIOGENES LAERTIUS, biographer.

330 Seat of Empire removed to Byzantium.

350 THEMISTIUS of Paphlagonia, sophist and Aristotelian commentator.

354 LIBANIUS of Antioch, sophist and epistolographer.

355 HIMERIUS of Prusa, sophist.
1 Aelian was an Italian who never so much as visited Greece, though he preferred to write in Greek his anecdotes of the philosophers, of animals, and of the persons, important and insignificant, whom he gathered into his Medley 0f History ( Varia Historid). This has survived, together with the treatise On Animals and a number of Letters of dubious authenticity. It is only by convention that one includes their author’s name among those who have contributed to Greek literature.

371 JULIAN of Constantinople, emperor and sophist.

380 ? QUINTUS of Smyrna, epic poet.

386 EUNAPIUS of Sardis, sophist and biographer.

390 ? HELIODORUS of Phoenicia, writer of romance.

400 ? NONNUS, epic poet.

450 PROCLUS of Lycia, philosopher.

500 ? MUSAEUS, epic poet.

529 Closing of the schools of philosophy by Justinian.

540 AGATHIAS, epigrammatist.

550 PSTOBAEUS JOANNES of Stobi in Macedonia, anthologist and collector of extracts.