Recognised Book Searching with the Google Mini Search Appliance

The much anticipated introduction of our Google Mini Search Appliance, is now online for searching the Ultrapedia Library!  You can try it out here.  
The search interface resembles the well known experience with which most of you are familiar, delivering relevant search results at record speed.
When you enter a search term for a book, the results will show a few sentences showing your search term in context, for each book found. The Google Mini Search appliance offers advanced search features too, so you can refine your search further; for example, search for an exact phrase;  all of the words, and with or without any of the words you are searching for.  
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Foreign Language Titles coming to the Ultrapedia Library 
We’ll soon be bringing online foreign language titles, including books in French, Spanish, Italian, German, Greek, Russian, Portuguese and Polish.  Something our foreign language visitors are looking forward to.  We’ll keep you posted via this blog.
There is also a new showcase section on the website, which you can view here.
We select a page from a book in our Library, and compare it side by side with the same page from the image only version of the book.  It is quite unique.  In the particular example we are showcasing is a page from A History of Greek Art by Frank Bigelow Tarbell – published in 1896.  Look closer and compare the two pages.  The left side is the recognised version, and the right side is the image only version.  You will see that the formating and presentation of the original book is preserved in the recognised version – making the recognised version a very close carbon copy of the original book.

Better browsing
Genre, Publisher and ASIN are three new browsing categories available for browsing the library, in addition to the book title and book author browsing categories already online.


Bibliography – British Malaya

The Bibliography below is from Sir Frank Swettenhams book British Malaya published in 1907.  It demonstrates how our Recognition techniques, reproduce a close digital ‘carbon copy’ of the bibliography in the original book, including formatting, different fonts and sizes (rather than plain text).

Download the complete Recognised version of the book here.

Our OCR Farm produces Recognised files in different formats.  This particular example is from a Microsoft Word 2007 document.  The document text was copied directly from Word and pasted into this WordPress blog posting.  Only a few minor punctuation corrections were necessary.

The fonts in the text below are Times New Roman 12pt, 9pt and 7pt,  Normal, Bold and italics.  Depending on your browser settings some of the smaller fonts maybe harder to see. 

Use the keys CTRL and + to enlarge the page in Internet Explorer, or the keys Command and + to enlarge the page in Safari or Firefox.

Bibliography from the book:

British Malaya by Sir Frank Swettenham -1907


With Title-page and Cover designed by PATTEN WILSON  Crown 8vo. 6s. Third Edition

Pall Mall Gazette.—” Sir Frank Swettenham’s style it simple and direct and vigorous. Particularly good is his eye for colour, and he has a fine sense of the brilliant melancholy of the East. To few falls the good fortune of introducing us to a new people, and seldom have we the advantage of so admirable a guide.”

Spectator.—”This is one of those books which exercise such a fascination upon the mind of the stay-at-home traveller. Stay-at-home though he may be, he has no difficulty in distinguishing the work of a genuine authority from the hasty and inexact impression of the idle globe-trotter.  ‘Malay Sketches’ will be speedily recognized by him as belonging to the more reliable kind of his favourite literature.”

Daily Chronicle.—” Nothing approaching Sir Frank Swettenham’s intimate knowledge and illuminative analysis has yet seen the light about that fascinating country which he so well describes.”


With Portrait of the Author. Crown 8vo. 6s. Fourth Edition

Athcnaum.Deep gratitude is due to Sir Frank for giving these letters to the world. . . . The happy description of Eastern life, the musings on great scenes, the stories and the utterances of social wisdom, are all delightful, and add body to a book remarkable for a rare delicacy and charm.”

Pall Mall Gazette.—” His narrative style is admirable, and his episodes are always interesting. One could read for many hours of the clever mongoose and tigers and crocodiles. … Sir Frank Swettenham has a pretty humour. . . .The style in which these ‘Unaddresscd Letters’  is written is excellent.”

Daily Chronicle, ” ‘Unaddressscd Letters’ is the revelation of a personality at once sympathetic and distinguished, imaginative, sensitive, emotional.”

Academy.We cordially welcome the book. It is a generous self-revelation of uncommon candour, in a form sufficiently unfamiliar to preserve the charm of novelty.”


Pen Pictures. Crown 8vo. 6s,

Manchester Guardian.Altogether this book, written by a man who has made a close study of the Malay and who possesses in a high degree the power of vivid description and subtle analysis of character, will be full of charm to any one who has an eye for the bright lights and deep shadows of the tropic r.ast.”

Daily Telegraph.— “A collection of masterly character sketches taken from the life, and illustrating a few of his most noteworthy personal experiences, acquired during a long sojourn in the Straits Settlements. All the character sketches, fifteen in number, are highly-finished works of art; pre-eminently so is a ‘genre’ picture of a malignant monkey, which proved fatal to every human being brought within the sphere of its baleful influence, and gave rise to long-protracted litigation.”

V31s- Badly Recognised Titles

Also posted in the Ultrapedia Forums

We are already part way through creating V4s of books in the Ultrapedia Library. Book titles beginning with letter ‘A’ is now complete. See the eariler posting Beyond V3s – What’s Next? for more information.

A byproduct of creating V4s is weeding out the badly recognised titles. We call a badly recognised title ‘V31’. Below is a list of 250 V31s from book titles beginning with the letter ‘A’. Also included are some foreign titles which have crept into the English language library. There are 250 V31 titles from a total of 2500 titles.

A book is badly recognised (V31), when the original, was either in such bad shape, even the best digitising techniques wouldn’t produce good recognition results. Or the book wasn’t digitised well enough, for the recognition process to perform well.

We will source better originals of the V31s for re-submission to the OCR Farm and re-integrate them into the Ultrapedia Library.

V31s-Badly Recognised Titles

TITLE: A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations, Jewish, Heathen, Mahometan and Christian, Ancient and Modern
AUTHOR: Hannah Adams

TITLE: A dictionary of archaic and provincial words, obsolete phrases, proverbs and ancient customs, from the fourteenth century
AUTHOR: James Orchard Halliwell- Phillipps

TITLE: A Dictionary of Chemistry
AUTHOR: Andrew Ure

TITLE: A dictionary of Latin quantities
AUTHOR: William Willis Moseley

TITLE: A Dictionary of practical medicine v. 1
AUTHOR: James Copland

TITLE: A Dictionary of practical medicine v. 4
AUTHOR: James Copland

TITLE: A dictionary of pratical medicine. 3 vols. [in 4]. 3 vols. [in 4].
AUTHOR: James Copland

TITLE: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language
AUTHOR: W. Owen [William Owen] Pughe

TITLE: A Digest of the Law Concerning Libels
AUTHOR: Gentleman of the Inner-Temple

TITLE: A discourse concerning the Church
AUTHOR: Moses Hemmenway, Ebenezer Hazard Pamphlet Collection [Library of Congress], Miscellaneous Pamphlet Collection [Library of Congress], Thomas Waterman Pamphlet Collection [Library of Congress], American Imprint Collection [Library of Congress]

    TITLE: A Discourse Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America
    AUTHOR: John Morgan

    TITLE: A Dissertation on the Antiquity of the Earth
    AUTHOR: James Douglas

    TITLE: A Dissertation on the Inoculated Small-pox
    AUTHOR: John Mudge

    TITLE: A Full Answer to the Letter from a By-stander, &c.
    AUTHOR: Thomas Carte, Miscellaneous Pamphlet Collection [Library of Congress]

    TITLE: A Funeral Sermon Preached in the Church of Hanley Castle, Sunday, April 13, 1856, on the Death of Sir Edmund Hungerford Lechmere, Bart
    AUTHOR: John Ryle Wood

    TITLE: A Further Report from the
    AUTHOR: Parliament, Great Britain, House of Commons

    TITLE: A General Catalogue of Books in All Languages, Arts, and Sciences, Printed in Great Britain, and Published in London, from the Year MDCC to MDCCLXXXVI.
    AUTHOR: William Bent

    TITLE: a general index to the philosophical transactions

    TITLE: A Gentleman’s Religion:
    AUTHOR: Edward Synge

    TITLE: A gentleman’s religion
    AUTHOR: Edward Synge

    TITLE: A Geographical and Historical Description of Ancient Greece
    AUTHOR: J. A. [John Anthony] Cramer

    TITLE: A Golden Mirrour
    AUTHOR: Richard Robinson, Thomas Corser

    TITLE: A Grammar of the English Tongue
    AUTHOR: Thomas Coar

    TITLE: A Grammar of the New Testament Dictionary Intended as an Introduction to the Critical Study of the Greek New Testament …
    AUTHOR: Georg Benedikt Winer

    TITLE: A grammar of the Portuguese language
    AUTHOR: Alfred Elwes

    TITLE: A Grammatical Index to the Chĕndogya-upanisad
    AUTHOR: Charles Edgar Little

    TITLE: A Guide to the practical study of diseases of the eye
    AUTHOR: James Dixon

    TITLE: A Guide to the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Urine
    AUTHOR: Julius Vogel, Carl Neubauer, William Orlando Markham, Karl Theodor Ludwig Neubauer

    TITLE: A Hand-book for Travellers in Central Italy
    AUTHOR: Octavian Blewitt

    TITLE: A Hand-book of Railway Law
    AUTHOR: Arthur Moore

    TITLE: A Handy Book of Curious Information
    AUTHOR: William Shepard Walsh

    TITLE: A Handy-book of the Law of Dower
    AUTHOR: W. George Draper

    TITLE: A High-school Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language
    AUTHOR: Noah Webster, William Greenleaf Webster

    TITLE: A History of the earth and animated nature v.2
    AUTHOR: Oliver Goldsmith

    TITLE: A History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension Or Restriction in the United States
    AUTHOR: Horace Greeley

    TITLE: A Homeric Dictionary for Use in Schools and Colleges
    AUTHOR: Georg Autenrieth

    TITLE: A Journey from London to Genoa,
    AUTHOR: Giuseppe Marco Antonio Baretti

    TITLE: A Journey Through Part of England and Scotland Along with the Army Under the Command of His Royal Highness, the Duke of Cumberland
    AUTHOR: A Volunteer, James Ray

    TITLE: A key to Hiley’s Practical English composition
    AUTHOR: Richard Hiley

    TITLE: A Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names
    AUTHOR: John Walker

    TITLE: A Letter to Martin Folkes, Esq
    AUTHOR: George Costard

    TITLE: A letter to that truly patriot-candidate for the city of Dublin, doctor Charles Lucas
    AUTHOR: Philo-Hibernicus

    TITLE: A Letter to the Craftsmen Upon the Change of Affairs in Europe by the War that is Begun Against the Emperour

    TITLE: A Letter to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of London
    AUTHOR: Edward Weston

    TITLE: A List of the Officers of the Militia of the United Kingdom. 1st August, 1809

    TITLE: A Literal Prose Translation of Five Select Pieces from the Works of Tasso, Metastasio and Alfieri
    AUTHOR: E. Capuzzi

    TITLE: A Magyar Ællami Földtani Intézet evkönyve
    AUTHOR: Magyar Ællami Földtani Intézet

    TITLE: A Manual of Arithmetic for Teachers, Giving Practical Suggestions for Teaching of Arithmetic in the Elementary Grades and Junior High School
    AUTHOR: Edison Ellsworth Oberholtzer

    TITLE: A Manual of medical treatment or Clinical therapeutics
    AUTHOR: Isaac Burney Yeo

    TITLE: A Manual of Parliamentary Practice, Composed Originally for the Use of the Senate of the United States
    AUTHOR: Thomas Jefferson

    TITLE: A manual of the Chaldee language
    AUTHOR: Elias Riggs

    TITLE: A Mathematical Dictionary
    AUTHOR: Joseph Raphson, Jacques Ozanam

    TITLE: A Medical Vocabulary in English and Chinese
    AUTHOR: Benjamin Hobson

    TITLE: A Memorial of the Dedication of Monuments Erected by the Moravian Historical Society
    AUTHOR: Moravian Historical Society

    TITLE: A Narrative of the Campaigns of the British Army at Washington and New Orleans, Under Generals Ross, Pakenham, and Lambert, in the Years 1814 and 1815
    AUTHOR: George Robert Gleig

    TITLE: A New Catechetical Hebrew and English Grammar
    AUTHOR: William L. Roy

    TITLE: A new collection of voyages and travels [ed. by J. Stevens]. 2 vols. [in 7 pt. Pt.5,6 and 7 want the title-leaf and prelims].
    AUTHOR: New Collection

    TITLE: A New Concordance and Dictionary to the Holy Scriptures
    AUTHOR: John Butterworth

    TITLE: A new dictionary of the English and Dutch language [by D. Bomhoff].
    AUTHOR: Derk Bomhoff

    TITLE: A new grammar of the Portuguese and English languages. Pt.1, Port. Pt.2, Ingl. [in Port.].
    AUTHOR: Luiz Francisco Midosi

    TITLE: A New Guide for Travelers Through the United States of America
    AUTHOR: John Calvin Smith

    TITLE: A new guide to the conversation and pronunciation of the Italian and English languages, with dialogues
    AUTHOR: Giovanni Battista Zuppelli

    TITLE: A New Guide to the English Tongue
    AUTHOR: Thomas Dilworth

    TITLE: A New Latin Vocabulary
    AUTHOR: A New Latin Vocabulary

    TITLE: A New Method for Learning the Portuguese Language
    AUTHOR: E. F. Grauert

    TITLE: A new pocket dictionary of the Portuguese and English languages, in two parts, viz. Portuguese and English, and English and Portuguese, abridged from Vieyra’s Dictionary, with many alterations and improvements
    AUTHOR: Domingos Vieira, J. D. Do Canto

    TITLE: A new practical and easy method of learning the Portuguese language
    AUTHOR: Lopes de Cabano

    TITLE: A New Pronouncing French Primer, Or, The Scholars’ Guide to the Accurate Pronunciation and Orthography of the French Language …
    AUTHOR: Bernard Tronchin

    TITLE: A new Spanish grammar
    AUTHOR: Mariano Cubi y Soler

    TITLE: A new supplement to the pharmacopæias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin and Paris
    AUTHOR: James Rennie

    TITLE: A New System
    AUTHOR: Jacob Bryant

    TITLE: A new universal etymological technological, and pronouncing dictionary of the English language
    AUTHOR: John Craig

    TITLE: A pedestrian tour in Calabria & Sicily
    AUTHOR: Arthur John Strutt

    TITLE: A Phonographic and Pronouncing Vocabulary of the English Language
    AUTHOR: Isaac Pitman

    TITLE: A Phonographic Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language
    AUTHOR: William Bolles

    TITLE: A Phrase Book in English and German …
    AUTHOR: Moritz Ertheiler

    TITLE: A plain and faithful narrative of the original design, rise, progress and present state of the Indian charity-school at Lebanon, in Connecticut
    AUTHOR: Eleazar Wheelock

    TITLE: A Plain and Rational Account of the Catholick Faith
    AUTHOR: Robert Manning

    TITLE: A Pocket Hand-book of Biography …
    AUTHOR: Henry Frederic Reddall

    TITLE: A Poem on the Times of Edward II
    AUTHOR: Charles Hardwick

    TITLE: A Political Index to the Histories of Great Britain & Ireland, Or, a Complete Register of the Hereditary Honours, Public Offices, and Persons in Office
    AUTHOR: Robert Beatson

    TITLE: A Polyglot Grammar
    AUTHOR: Samuel Barnard

    TITLE: A Polyglot of Foreign Proverbs
    AUTHOR: Henry George Bohn

    TITLE: A popular and complete English dictionary
    AUTHOR: John Boag

    TITLE: A Portuguese and English Grammar
    AUTHOR: P. Babad

    TITLE: A Portuguese and English Grammar
    AUTHOR: P. Babad

    TITLE: A practical and easy method of learning the French verbs; with guide to French conversation
    AUTHOR: Charles Henri Schneider

    TITLE: A Practical Grammar of the Dutch Language
    AUTHOR: Baldwin Janson

    TITLE: A Practical treatise on materia medica and therapeutics
    AUTHOR: John Vietch Shoemaker

    TITLE: A Practical treatise on materia medica and therapeutics
    AUTHOR: John Vietch Shoemaker

    TITLE: A Reply to the Animadversions on the History of the Corruptions of Christianity, in the Monthly Review for June, 1783; with Additional Observations Relating to the Doctrine of the Primitive Church, Concerning the Person of Christ. By Joseph Priestley
    AUTHOR: Joseph Priestley

    TITLE: A Report to the Navy Department of the United States on American Coals
    AUTHOR: Walter Rogers Johnson, United States Navy Dept

    TITLE: A representation of the advantages that would arise to this kingdom by the erecting and improving of manufactories, but more especially by that of woollen-cloath
    AUTHOR: Representation

    TITLE: A Review of the Constitutions of the Principal States of Europe, and of the United States of America
    AUTHOR: Elizabeth Ryves, Delacroix [Jacques-Vincent], Pre-1801 Imprint Collection [Library of Congress], M. Delacroix

    TITLE: A Rhyming Dictionary
    AUTHOR: John Walker

    TITLE: A Rudimentary Treatise on Masonry and Stonecutting in which the Principles of Masonic Projection and Their Application to the Construction of Curved Wing Walls, Domes, Oblique Bridges, and Roman and Gothic Vaulting are Concisely Explained
    AUTHOR: Edward Dobson

    TITLE: A Samoan Dictionary
    AUTHOR: George Pratt

    TITLE: A School Atlas of English History
    AUTHOR: Samuel Rawson. Gardiner

    TITLE: A School Atlas of English History
    AUTHOR: Samuel Rawson. Gardiner

    TITLE: A sermon [on Acts xiii. 22] preach’d on January 20, 1714/15, by a clergyman in the country
    AUTHOR: Sermon

    TITLE: A sermon [on Acts xvii, 31] preached before the judges at the assizes held in Flint, April 13, 1762
    AUTHOR: John Prescot

    TITLE: A sermon [on Neh. v, 19] preached before … Francis Bernard, esq., governor … of the province of the Massachusetts-bay … May 28th, 1766
    AUTHOR: Edward Barnard

    TITLE: A Sermon, Preached at the House of Dr. Calvin Martin, in Seekonk, February 9th, 1821, on Occasion of the Death of Three of His Children
    AUTHOR: Otis Thompson

    TITLE: A Sermon Preach’d Before the Honourable House of Commons at St. Margaret’s, Westminster, on the 29th of May 1716
    AUTHOR: William Burscough

    TITLE: A Sermon Preach’d June 28, 1691 at Saint Giles’s in the Fields
    AUTHOR: John Sharp

    TITLE: A Sermon Preached Before the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
    AUTHOR: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts [Great Britain], Zachary Pearce

    TITLE: A Short But Comprehensive System of the Geography of the World
    AUTHOR: Nathaniel Dwight

    TITLE: A Short Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin for Schools and Colleges
    AUTHOR: Victor Henry

    TITLE: A Short Instruction Into Christian Religion
    AUTHOR: Edward Burton, Thomas Cranmer, Justus Jonas

    TITLE: A Short Introduction of Grammar
    AUTHOR: William Lily

    TITLE: A Short Introduction to English Grammar
    AUTHOR: Robert Lowth

    TITLE: A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for Classical Students
    AUTHOR: Peter Giles

    TITLE: A Short Narrative of the Late Campaign of the British Army Under the Orders of the Right Honourable the Earl of Chatham, K.G. With Preliminary Remarks on the Topography and Channels of Zeeland …
    AUTHOR: John Squires

    TITLE: A Short System of Practical Arithmetic
    AUTHOR: William Kinne

    TITLE: A Short Table of Integrals
    AUTHOR: Benjamin Osgood Peirce

    TITLE: A short treatise on the steam engine
    AUTHOR: James Hann

    TITLE: A Short View of the Families of the Scottish Nobility
    AUTHOR: N. [Nathaniel] Salmon

    TITLE: A Short View of the Whole Scripture History
    AUTHOR: Isaac Watts, Richard Cunningham Shimeall

    TITLE: A Specimen of the Conformity of the European Languages Particularly the English, with the Oriental Languages Especially the Persian
    AUTHOR: Stephen Weston

    TITLE: A Speech for the Useful Arts
    AUTHOR: Henry Champion Deming

    TITLE: A Supplement to Dodsley’s Old Plays
    AUTHOR: Thomas Amyot, John Payne Collier, William Durrant Cooper, Alexander Dyce, Barron Field, J. O. [James Orchard] Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright, Robert Dodsley

    TITLE: A Supplement to Johnson’s English Dictionary
    AUTHOR: George Mason

    TITLE: A System of Notation
    AUTHOR: William Pelham, Samuel Johnson

    TITLE: A Systematic Arrangement of Lord Coke’s First Institute of the Laws of England
    AUTHOR: Edward Coke, Thomas Littleton, Matthew Hale, Francis Hargrave, Heneage Finch Nottingham

    TITLE: A Tentative List of Books and Some Mss. Relating to the History of the Portuguese in India Proper
    AUTHOR: Arthur Coke Burnell

    TITLE: A Thanksgiving Sermon, Preach’d October the 9th, 1746.
    AUTHOR: Arthur Dobbs

    TITLE: A Thanksgiving Sermon for the Success of His Majefty’s Forces
    AUTHOR: John Norman

    TITLE: A Theological Dictionary, Containing Definitions of All Religious Terms
    AUTHOR: Charles Buck

    TITLE: A Treatise Containing the Practical Part of Fortification
    AUTHOR: John Muller

    TITLE: A Treatise on Differential Equations
    AUTHOR: George Boole

    TITLE: A Treatise on Optics
    AUTHOR: Stephen Parkinson

    TITLE: A Treatise on the Chemical History and Medical Powers of Some of the Most Celebrated Mineral Waters;
    AUTHOR: William Saunders

    TITLE: A Treatise on the Commerce and Police of the River Thames
    AUTHOR: Patrick Colquhoun, Pre-1801 Imprint Collection [Library of Congress]

    TITLE: A Treatise on the Manufacture of Liquors, Syrups, Cordials and Bitters

    TITLE: A Universal Biographical Dictionary, Containing the Lives of the Most Celebratd Characters of Every Age and Nation
    AUTHOR: Charles N. Baldwin

    TITLE: A Universal Language, Formed on Philosophical and Analogical Principles
    AUTHOR: James Ruggles

    TITLE: A View of the English Constitution
    AUTHOR: William Higden

    TITLE: A Vocabulary of the English, Bugis, and Malay Languages

    TITLE: Abstract of a Journal of E. Bacon, Assistant Agent of the United States, to Africa
    AUTHOR: Ephraim Bacon

    TITLE: Adam’s Latin Grammar, with Some Improvements, and the Following Additions
    AUTHOR: Alexander Adam, Benjamin Apthorp Gould

    TITLE: Additional Hymns, Adopted by the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church, in America, at Their Session, June 1831, and Authorized to be Used in the Churches Under Their Care.
    AUTHOR: Reformed Church in America

    TITLE: Additional Hymns
    AUTHOR: Reformed Church in America

    TITLE: Aeschines against Ctesiphon
    AUTHOR: Aeschines, Rufus Byam Richardson

    TITLE: Agricola and Germania
    AUTHOR: Cornelius Tacitus

    TITLE: Agricultural Writers from Sir Walter of Henley to Arthur Young, 1200-1800
    AUTHOR: Donald McDonald, Hindrik Haijo Janssonius, Jan Willem Moll, Sijfert Hendrik Koorders

    TITLE: ppropriation Bill, Hearings Before …, December 10 and 11, 1912

    TITLE: Albania
    AUTHOR: Marcin Czermi≈óski

    TITLE: Alcohol in History
    AUTHOR: Richard Eddy

    TITLE: Amalthea
    AUTHOR: Amalthea

    TITLE: Amedeo di Savoia
    AUTHOR: Augusto Trinchieri

    TITLE: America Discovered in the Tenth Century
    AUTHOR: Carl Christian Rafn

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge
    AUTHOR: American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge

    TITLE: American Annals
    AUTHOR: Abiel Holmes

    TITLE: American Machinists’ Handbook and Dictionary of Shop Terms
    AUTHOR: Fred Herbert Colvin, Frank Arthur Stanley

    TITLE: American Sewerage Practice …
    AUTHOR: Harrison Prescott Eddy, Leonard. Metcalf

    TITLE: Amsterdam et Venise …
    AUTHOR: Henry Havard

    TITLE: An Abridgement of the Acts of the General Assemblies of the Church of Scotland, Beginning with the General Assembly Held at Glasgow in the
    Year 1638, and Ending with the General Assembly Held at Edinburgh, in May 1720
    AUTHOR: John Dundas, Church of Scotland General Assembly

    TITLE: An Abridgment of the Controversy Between the Church of England, and
    the New Pseudo-primitives. Wherein the Chief Arguments on Each Side are Propos’d in So Short and Plain a Method, as May Render it Generally Useful, Even to Persons of the Meanest Capacity

    AUTHOR: Samuel Downes

    TITLE: An Accompaniment to Mitchell’s Map of the World, on Mercator’s Projection
    AUTHOR: S. Augustus [Samuel Augustus] Mitchell

    TITLE: An Accompaniment to Mitchell’s Reference and Distance Map of the
    United States;
    AUTHOR: S. Augustus [Samuel Augustus] Mitchell

    TITLE: An Account of the Experiment Made at the Desire of the Lords
    Commissioners of the Admiralty , on Board the Union Hospital Ship, to Determine the Effect of the Nitrous Acid in Destroying Contagion , and the Safety with which it May be Employed
    AUTHOR: James Carmichael Smyth

    TITLE: An Account of the Life and Death of Mr. Philip Henry, Minister
    of the Gospel, Near Whitchurch in Shropshire, who Dyed June 24, 1696 in the Sixty Fifth Year of His Age
    AUTHOR: Matthew Henry

    TITLE: An Account of the Numbers of Men Able to Bear Arms in the Provinces
    and Towns of France
    AUTHOR: Thomas Carte

    TITLE: An Account of the Organization of the Army of the United States
    AUTHOR: Fayette Robinson

    TITLE: An accurate … catalogue of the several paintings in the king
    of Spain’s palace at Madrid, with some account of the pictures in
    the Buen-Retiro
    AUTHOR: Richard Cumberland

    TITLE: An Address to the British Public
    AUTHOR: Edward Alured Draper

    TITLE: An Alarum Against Usurers
    AUTHOR: Thomas Lodge

    TITLE: An Alexandrian erotic fragment and other Greek papyri chiefly Ptolemaic
    AUTHOR: Bernard Pyne Grenfell

    TITLE: An American Cruiser in the East
    AUTHOR: John Donaldson Ford

    TITLE: An Analysis of the Principal Duties of Social Life
    AUTHOR: John Andrews

    TITLE: An Analytical Index to the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne
    AUTHOR: Evangeline M. [Evangeline Maria] O’Connor, Nathaniel Hawthorne

    TITLE: An Anglo-Saxon Passion of St. George
    AUTHOR: Aelfric, Charles Hardwick

    TITLE: An answer [by L. Atterbury] to a popish book, intituled, A true
    and modest account of the chief points in controversie, between the Roman Catholicks and the Protestants … by N.C.
    AUTHOR: Lewis Atterbury, Cornelius Nary

    TITLE: An Answer to that Part of the Narrative of Lieutenant-General
    Sir Henry Clinton, K.B.
    AUTHOR: Charles Cornwallis Cornwallis

    TITLE: An Antidote Against Deism
    AUTHOR: Niel Douglas

    TITLE: An Authentic Narrative of a Voyage Performed by Captain Cook and
    Captain Clerke, in His Majesty’s Ships Resolution and Discovery During the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780
    AUTHOR: Ellis, W. [William]

    TITLE: An Easy Grammar of Geography
    AUTHOR: Jacob Willetts

    TITLE: An_elementary_Italian_grammar_for_the_us-V2
    AUTHOR: An_elementary_Italian_grammar_for_the_us-V2

    TITLE: An Elementary Reader, German and English, Based Upon the Affinity
    of the Languages
    AUTHOR: Ignace Steiner

    TITLE: An English and Turkish dictionary
    AUTHOR: James William Redhouse

    TITLE: An English and Welch vocabulary
    AUTHOR: Thomas Evans, Thomas Richards

    TITLE: An English-Irish Dictionary
    AUTHOR: Daniel Foley

    TITLE: An Examination of Dr. Burnet’s Theory of the Earth
    AUTHOR: John Keill, Maupertuis

    TITLE: An Historical, Geographical, Commercial, and Philosophical View
    of the United States of America, and of the European Settlements in America and the West-Indies
    AUTHOR: William Winterbotham

    TITLE: An Historical Essay on the Magna Charta of King John
    AUTHOR: Richard Thomson

    TITLE: An History of Ireland, from the Year 1599, to 1603
    AUTHOR: Fynes Moryson


    TITLE: An introduction to heraldry, by H.Clark
    AUTHOR: Hugh Clark

    TITLE: An introduction to medical botany
    AUTHOR: Thomas Castle

    TITLE: An Introduction to the Life and Writings of G—t Lord Bishop of S—m
    AUTHOR: George Sewell

    TITLE: An Oration, Delivered at Salem, on the Fourth of July, 1810
    AUTHOR: Joseph E. Sprague

    TITLE: An Oration Delivered at Gloucester, July 4, 1827, in Commemoration of Our National Independence
    AUTHOR: Thomas Stephenson

    TITLE: An Oration Delivered at Newburyport, on the Forty-sixth
    Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1822
    AUTHOR: Robert Cross

    TITLE: An Oration Delivered at Quincy, on the Fifth of July, 1824
    AUTHOR: George Washington Adams

    TITLE: An Universal, Historical, Geographical, Chronological and
    Poetical Dictionary, Exactly Describing the Situation, Extent, Customs … of All Kingdoms …
    AUTHOR: An Universal, Historical, Geographical, Chronological and Poetical

    TITLE: Dictionary, Exactly Describing the Situation, Extent, Customs … of All Kingdoms …

    TITLE: Anatomy– descriptive and surgical
    AUTHOR: Henry Gray

    TITLE: Andokides
    AUTHOR: Andocides

    TITLE: Andreas and The Fates of the Apostles
    AUTHOR: Cynewulf

    TITLE: Anglo-French treaty of January 23, 1860, Anglo-Belgium treaty
    of July 23, 1862, with tables of import duties. Also Anglo-French ready-reckoner
    AUTHOR: J O. Murray

    TITLE: Anglo-Saxon and early English psalter
    AUTHOR: Joseph Stevenson

    TITLE: Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter
    AUTHOR: Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter

    TITLE: Annales algériennes
    AUTHOR: Henri Jean F. Edmond Pellissier de Reynaud

    TITLE: Annals of the Rise, Progress, and Persecutions of the Famous
    Reformed Churches in France
    AUTHOR: Annals of the Rise, Progress, and Persecutions of the Famous
    Reformed Churches in France

    TITLE: Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century
    AUTHOR: Edward Cust

    TITLE: Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century
    AUTHOR: Edward Cust

    TITLE: Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century
    AUTHOR: Edward Cust

    TITLE: Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century
    AUTHOR: Edward Cust

    TITLE: Anniversaries, armour of proof for the soldier of Christ [signed C.M.B.].
    AUTHOR: C M. B, Anniversaries

    TITLE: Anthems and Hymns Set to Music
    AUTHOR: A. Kreissmann

    TITLE: Antidote contre les réticences et les erreurs historiques de
    monsieur de Gerlache [in his Histoire du royaume des Pays-Bas] par …….., pr√™tre catholique belge
    AUTHOR: Benoît Emmanuel L. Beeckman, Ûtienne Constantin Gerlache

    TITLE: Antikes Zaubergerät aus Pergamon
    AUTHOR: Richard Wünsch

    TITLE: Antoine Sanderus et ses écrits
    AUTHOR: Antoine Sanderus et ses écrits

    TITLE: Apgar’s Plant Analysis
    AUTHOR: Ellis A. Apgar

    TITLE: Arbustrum Americanum
    AUTHOR: Humphrey Marshall

    TITLE: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Uruguay, Per√∫, Bolivia y Paraguay
    AUTHOR: Francisco Seeber

    TITLE: Argentina
    AUTHOR: Cincinato G. B. Laguardia

    TITLE: Ariège, Andorre et Catalogue, guide
    AUTHOR: Louis Boucoiran

    TITLE: Arms of the English nobility. Corrected. [With] Arms of the Scotch nobility [and] Arms of the Irish nobility
    AUTHOR: John Millan

    TITLE: Army Appropriation Bill

    TITLE: Army misrule
    AUTHOR: Army misrule

    TITLE: Aroun’ the Boreens
    AUTHOR: Agnes Ita Hanrahan

    TITLE: Asiatick Researches
    AUTHOR: Asiatic Society [Calcutta, India]

    TITLE: Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Belonging to the Kouyunjik
    Collections of the British Museum
    AUTHOR: Robert Francis Harper

    TITLE: Athens and Attica
    AUTHOR: Christopher Wordsworth

    TITLE: Atlas and epitome of human histology and microscopic anatomy
    AUTHOR: Johannes Sobotta

    TITLE: Atlas der Hautkrankheiten mit Einschluss der wichtigsten
    venerischen Erkrankungen für praktische aerzte und studierende suppl
    AUTHOR: Eduard Jacobi

    TITLE: Atlas met√≥dico para la ense√±anza de la geograf√La de la Rep√∫blica mexicana
    AUTHOR: Antonio Garc√La Cubas

    TITLE: Atlas und Grundriss der chirurgischen Operationslehre
    AUTHOR: Otto Zuckerkandl

    TITLE: August Boeckh’s gesammelte kleine Schriften
    AUTHOR: Ferdinand Ascherson, Paul Eichholtz, August Boeckh, Ernst Bratuscheck

    TITLE: August Boeckh’s gesammelte kleine Schriften
    AUTHOR: Ferdinand Ascherson, Paul Eichholtz, August Boeckh, Ernst Bratuscheck

    TITLE: August Boeckh’s gesammelte kleine Schriften
    AUTHOR: Ferdinand Ascherson, Paul Eichholtz, August Boeckh, Ernst Bratuscheck

    TITLE: August Hermann Niemeyer, zur Erinnerung an dessen Leben und
    Wirken, herausg. von A. Jacobs und vollendet von J G. Gruber
    AUTHOR: August Hermann Niemeyer, zur Erinnerung an dessen Leben und
    Wirken, herausg. von A. Jacobs und vollendet von J G. Gruber

    TITLE: August Lafontaine’s Leben und wirken
    AUTHOR: Johann Gottfried Gruber

    TITLE: August Matthi√§ πs vermischte Schriften in lateinischer und
    deutscher Sprache
    AUTHOR: August Matthiae

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: August Wilhelm von Schlegel’s s√§mmtliche Werke
    AUTHOR: August Wilhelm von Schlegel

    TITLE: Aus August von Kotzebue’s hinterlassenen Papieren
    AUTHOR: August von Kotzebue

    TITLE: Aus dem nachlasse Friedrich August Ludwig’s von der Marwitz auf Friedersdorf
    AUTHOR: Friedrich August Ludwig von der Marwitz

    TITLE: Authentic Memoirs Concerning the Portuguese Inquisition
    AUTHOR: Archibald Bower

    Chronology from “Arctic Experiences”

    Gunniborn, a Norseman, from Iceland, visits Greenland 872
    Eric the Red, son of a Norwegian jarl, settled in Greenland near present site of Jalianaahaab 983
    Eric visits Iceland, and returns with a number of emigrants, with the purpose of settling a colony in Greenland, at Brattahlid 985
    Lief, son of Eric, visits Norway, receives Christianity, returns, and proclaims it in Greenland toward the close of the ninth century, about 998
    Thjodhilda, wife of Eric, builds a church 1002
    Bishop Eric, a Christian prelate, visits Greenland 1120
    Bishop Arnold founds an Episcopal see at Garder, Greenland, and builds a cathedral 1126
    Colony attacked by the Skraellings, or Esquimaux, who burn and pillage the settlement, killing many inhabitants 1349
    Voyage of the two Venetian brothers Zeni, who reported land in the north-west. 1380
    Bishop’s See abandoned in Greenland, and Eric’s descendants utterly wiped out and exterminated soon after by the Esquimaux 1409
    Voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot, passing the Arctic circle to the northwest passages
    The brothers Cortereal made three voyages to the north-west 1500-’03
    Polar expedition, under Sir Hugh Willoughby, discovered part of Nova Zembla; the whole party subsequently frozen to death on the coast of Lapland 1503
    J. Carrier, a French navigator, made several voyages of discovery to the north and west 1534-’42
    Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on return from north-west voyage of exploration, foundered at sea 1578
    Captain John Davis explored the east and west coasts of Davis Strait. 1585-’88
    William Barentz made three Arctic voyages to the north-east 1594-’96
    Captain Weymouth sailed from England, under a contract to find a north-west passage to China, or forfeit all pay for his voyage 1602
    Henry Hudson made four voyages of discovery, sailing due north, north-east and north-west; found new and valuable lands, extending from New York to north of Hudson Bay. On last voyage, deserted by mutinous crew, set adrift in a small boat with six sick sailors, and voluntarily accompanied by his carpenter, John King, he and his seven companions perished at sea. 1607-’10
    Jan Mejan, a Dutch navigator, discovers Arctic island of that name 1611
    Sir Thomas Button, the first to sail across Hudson Bay from east to west. His name obliterated from modern maps 1612
    William Baffin and Fotherby, in 1614, and Baffin and Bylot, in 1616, sailed 1615 through Baffin Bay to month of Lancaster Sound. Their reported discoveries treated as myths 1614-16
    Captain Luke Fox discovered Fox Channel, and penetrated other waters to the north and west; could have accomplished much more had he not been trammeled by official “orders.” Captain James sailed on a similar expedition the same day in May 1681, ’82
    A Dutch navigator discovers and names, after himself, Gillies Land 1707
    Vitus Behring, a Russian naval officer, a Dane by birth, discovers Behring Strait and Behring Island 1741
    Middleton discovers Wager Bay 1742
    The British Parliament offered £20,000 for the discovery of a north-west passage to the Pacific via Hudson Bay 1748
    A private expedition to the north-west, under Captain Charles Swayne, sails in the Argo from Philadelphia 1754
    Hearne made three land-journeys north of American continent, discovered the Coppermine River, which he traced to its source 1772
    A private expedition, under Captain Wilder, in the brig Diligence, sails from Virginia in search of the north-west passage. 1772
    Captain Phipps (Lord Mulgrave) makes a voyage of Polar discovery to the north-east 1778
    British Parliament offers £20,000 for the discovery of any through passage to the North Pacific, and £5000 to any party getting within one degree west of the magnetic pole 1776
    Captain Cook, the circumnavigator, attempts the passage by Behring Strait, without success 1776
    Mackenzie found and traced the river of that name 1789
    William Scoresby, a Greenland whaler, makes a remarkable voyage due north. Reports open water “beyond the ice-barrier” 1806
    Scoresby stimulates Arctic research by numerous publications 1806-18
    Expeditions under Captain Ross and Lieutenant Parry 1818
    Captain Buchan and Lieutenant (afterward Sir J.) Franklin sail with a thoroughly equipped expedition, the first scientific party sent out by the British Government 1818
    Captain Parry and Lieutenant Lyon, in the Hecla and Griper; Parry sailed north-west through Barrow Strait and beyond, and claimed the Government reward of £5000 1820
    Remarkable land-journeys of Lieutenant Franklin and Dr. Richardson, also Midshipmen Hood and Back (afterward Sir George), from York Factory to Cape Turnagain 1819-22
    Baron Von Wrangel makes his famous sledge-journey, and reported open water in high northern latitude, known as ” Wrangel Sea” 1820-’23
    Clavering, with Colonel Sabine, go to Spitsbergen and Greenland in 1823
    Captain Beechey, in the Blossom, goes through Behring Strait, and follows the coast easterly to Barrow Point 1823, ’24
    Captain Parry made improvement in compasses to be used in Arctic navigation 1824
    Franklin skirts the north coast of America as far west as Return Reef. 1826
    Franklin winters with Dr. Richardson at Great Bear Lake; made interesting experiments on terrestrial magnetism, etc 1826, ’27
    Captain Beechey makes a second attempt to meet Franklin from the Pacific side, and fails 1827
    Parry makes another voyage to the north-east; travels in sledges north of Spitsbergen, and drifts foster south than he travels north 1827
    A private expedition, under patronage of Sir Felix Booth, sails under Captain John Ross in the Victory, in which steam was first used in Arctic exploration 1829
    Sir John Ross finds and fixes magnetic pole; English “union-jack” planted upon it by his nephew, James C. Ross 1831
    Captain Ross abandons his vessel, after wintering three years in the Arctic regions, builds boats, drags them overland to the coast; .put to sea; picked up by a whaler in July, 1833
    Lieutenant Back and Dr. King go overland from Fort Resolution in search of Ross 1833
    Lieutenant Back discovers and traces the Great Fish, or Back, River 1833-35
    The Hudson Bay Company send out Messrs. Dease and Simpson, who make valuable discoveries on a land and boat journey 1887, 38
    Sir John Franklin, in the Erebus, and Captain Crozier, in the Terror, sail in the spring of. 1845
    The Erebus and Terror last seen by Captain Dannet, master of the whaler Prince of Wales, in Baffin Bay, near Lancaster Sound July 26,1845
    Hudson Bay Company send Dr. John Rae to ascertain if Boothia is an island or peninsula 1846
    The Plover, Commander Thomas Moore, and the Herald, Captain Kellet, with Mr. Robert Sheddon in his pleasure-yacht, the Nancy Dawson, sail to Behring Strait, and make boat-journeys eastward, searching for Sir J. Franklin 1848-50
    A searching expedition for Sir J. Franklin sails, under Sir James C. Ross, in 1848
    The North Star is sent out with supplies 1849
    The British Government offers a reward of £20,000 to any party, of any nation, relieving Sir J. Franklin’s expedition 1849
    The British Government sends out eight vessels, with several tendere, to continue the search 1850
    Mr. Henry Grinnell, of New York, furnishes and equips the Advance and Rescue, to aid in the search for Franklin. The United States Government orders Lieutenants De Haven and Griffith to command the vessels 1850
    Captain M’Clure, in the Investigator, and Captain Collinson, in the Enterprise, go on the search through Behring Strait. The north-west passage solved by M’Clure (by observation) October 31,1850
    The Lady Franklin is sent out by wife of Sir J. Franklin, under Captain Penny 1850 Lady Franklin organizes another expedition to sail in the yacht Prince Albert, of 89 tons. Mr. William P. Snow, of New York, goes to Aberdeen, and sails in her as amateur explorer, with Captain Forsyth 1850
    Captain Ommany, of the Assistance, discovers the first traces of Sir J. Franklin’s party at Cape Riley. August 23,1850
    At Beechey Island Lieutenant Sherrard Osborne first fonnd dibris of Franklin’s first winter encampment, and three graves of sailors belonging to Erebus and Terror August 25,1850
    Lieutenant De Haven, in Advance, arrived at Beechey Island August 27,1850
    Ten of the searching vessels, drawn as by a common instinct, without appointed rendezvous, met at Beechey Island August 29,1850
    Leigh Smith, in English yacht, reaches lat. 81° 18/ sailing north-east 1851
    Captain Wilkes, United States Navy, memorialized Congress for appropriation of $50,000 to fit out a sledge-expedition to aid in the search 1851
    Captain Kennedy, with young French volunteer, Bellot, sails in Prince Albert. 1851 Captain William Penny discovers sea to the north of Wellington Channel; names Grinnell Land Albert Land, thinking it unknown 1851
    Sir Edward Belcher sails with a fleet of five vessels, to continue the search 1852
    Captain Inglefield, with Rene’ Bellot, sails in the Phoenix 1852
    Dr. E. K. Kane, late surgeon of the Advance, is sent out in that vessel, fitted up at expense of Mr. H. Grinnell, of New York, and Mr. George Peabody, of London; the latter paid £10,000 1853
    Captain M’Clure, in the Investigator, from Behring Strait, meets Lieutenant Pim near Dealy Island, the latter having entered the Arctic regions through Baffin Bay April 19,1853
    British searching ship Resolute, of Sir Edward Belcher’s fleet, abandoned 1853
    Captain Collinson, in the Enterprise, completes the passage (solving northwest) in his ship twenty days after M’Clure; turns to the south-east, makes many discoveries, and brings home relics of Sir John Franklin’s party 1850-54
    Sir John Franklin’s name stricken from the Navy List March 13,1854
    Sir Edward Belcher orders five good ships to be abandoned 1854
    The Resolute, one of Sir Edward Belcher’s fleet, starts on a drift of a thousand miles, from near Dealy Island to Cape Mercy 1854, 55
    Sir Edward Belcher and officers court-martialed in England; all honorably acquitted, except Sir Edward, “whose sword was returned to him in significant silence” 1854, ’56
    Captain M’Clure knighted, and Captain Collinson receives medal of honor 1854
    Dr. Kane, in brig Advance, explores east coast of Smith Sound; discovers and names Humboldt Glacier; surveys eight hundred miles of coast of Greenland and Washington Land, which he finds and names; abandons Advance; comes down with crew to Upernavik in small boats, which he reaches August 6; announces discovery by Morton of the ” Polar Sea ” 1853-’55
    Lieutenant Hartstene, in United States ship, searches for Dr. Kane, passing above Rensselaer Harbor; returns to Upernavik, and takes on board Kane and his company 1855
    Messrs. Anderson and Stuart find relics of the Franklin expedition at Montreal Island 1855
    Lieutenants Meacham and M’Clintock make separate Arctic land-journeys of nearly fifteen hundred miles each 1854, ’55
    Captain Tyson, then boat-steerer on board bark George Henry, of New London, Captain James Buddington, first sighted the Resolute near Cape Mercy, and visited it with three companions, bringing back relics to his vessel.. August, 1855
    The Resolute taken possession of by Captain Buddington, and brought to the United States 1855
    Resolute refitted, and presented to Queen Victoria by Lieutenant Hartstene, representing the United States, on December 16, “in the name of the American people” 1856
    Lady Franklin sends out the steam-yacht Fox, Captain M’Clintock, to make a final search for Sir John 1857
    Private expedition of James Lamont, F.G.S., to the north-east 1858
    The Fox is beset in the Melville Bay ice-pack, August and September, 1857, and drifts southward until April, 1868
    Lieutenant Hobson, of the Fox, found the record of the death of Sir John
    Franklin in a cairn at Victory Point. Date of death, June 11,1847 1868
    Captain M’Clintock finds two skeletons in a boat, members of Franklin’s party; collects numerous relics, and returns 1859
    Dr. Hayes sailed in the steamer United States, from Boston ; made extended land-journey on west coast of Smith Sound and north of it made extensive discoveries of new lands and connecting waters; planted the American flag on the most
    northern latitude attained on foot up to that date.. 1860
    Captain Parker Snow sailed for Bellot Strait and King William Land 1861
    A Government Swedish expedition, under Professor Torell, thoroughly fitted outj and having on board a large number of scientists, naturalists, and students, sailed for the seas north of Spitzbergen May 9,1861
    Blomstand finds the sea free of ice to the north of Spitzbergen August 10,1861
    CHARLES FRANCIS HALL, an amateur explorer, sailed from New London, Connecticut, in the brig George Henry, to continue the search for survivors of Franklin’s party; lost his vessel, the Rescue; explored Frobisher Strait; found the ” strait” to be a bay; brought back many relics of the old navigator 1860-62
    Charles Francis Hall makes a second voyage to Hudson Bay, north shore, in the bark Monticello, with only two Esquimaux companions; increases his native company; adds five white sailors; explores to ttie north and west, and gains much information respecting the Franklin party 1864
    Edward Whymper, a member of the London ” Alpine Club,” went to Greenland, and made interesting explorations 1867
    Baron Schilling projected an expedition by the Behring Strait route, expecting to skirt the Siberian coast, and find the Polar Sea, or a Polar continent, which he believes exists 1867
    Captain Long, of bark Nile, in lat. 70° 40′ N., 178° 15′ W., explored over 3° of an extensive land, and examined an extinct volcano 2480 feet high 1867
    Captain Raynor, of ship Reindeer, explored the same land for over 5° of longitude ; thought it extended for more than 8° of longitude, and north for 120 miles. The south-west cape of this land he reports 25 miles from the Asiatic coast 1867
    Captain Lewis, of the Corinthian, landed on this coast in August; found flowers and birds, and indications of coal 1867
    Lord Dufferin, in schooner-yacht Foam, made an Arctic voyage to north of Spitzbergen, etc 1867
    A Swedish expedition, under Professor Nordenskiold, made interesting discoveries in natural science to the north-east 1868
    A Russian merchant—Sidgeoff—sent out a scientific exploring expedition in a screw-steamer June, 1868
    A private expedition, sent out by M. A. Rosenthal, a merchant of Bremen, with scientific corps, with eminent astronomer, Dr. J. S. Doest, of Jiilich…. 1868
    Captain Blowen, of bark Nautilus, explored north of Spitzbergen to 72° N.; observed land extending west as far as he could see 1868
    The Gotha expedition, fonvarded by Mr. Rosenthal, with large screw-steamer Albert, a walrus-hunter, with a crew of fifty-five men, provisioned for fifteen months, with scientific corps, under Dr. Emil Bessel (late of Polaris), returned after an absence of only four months 1869
    Charles Francis Hall returns from his Franklin search expedition, after five years residence with the Esquimaux, with 150 relics of the Franklin party September 1,1869
    Seven Arctic expeditions organized and forwarded from different parts of Europe to Arctic regions 1869
    Dr. A. Peterman organized a party which sailed in the Germania, Captain Hegeman; and sailing-vessel Hansa, Captain Eoldewy—thirty-one officers and men, and six scientists. Left Bremerhaven for North Pole, via east coast of Greenland, provisioned for two years 1869
    Captain Palliser, private English gentleman, goes to the north, between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla 1869
    J. Lamont, F.G.S., author of “Arctic Zoology” and M.P. for Buteshire, fits out his own steam-yacht, at a cost of nearly $50,000; sailed for the north from Caledonian Canal 1869
    Mr. Robert Brown, an English naturalist, explored extensively within Arctic circle in Greenland. Printed report on Arctic fauna 1869
    Steamship Panther, from Boston, with Bradford, the artist and photographer, Dr. Hayes, and others, penetrate the Melville ice-pack, in pursuit of artistic icebergs 1869
    Dr. Hayes, in the steamer Panther, in boats, and on foot, makes interesting archaeological discoveries relating to the early Norse settlements in Greenland, summer of 1869
    A French expedition went from north of Europe to Arctic regions, to observe and collect facts relating to the aurora borealis, with the following eminent savants: MM. Lottin, Bravais, Lillehook, and Silgestrom, with M. Bevalet as artist. 1868, ’69
    The sailing vessel Hansa, of the German expedition, was lost on the east coast of Greenland, in lat. 70° 507, with a valuable collection of fauna and flora and scientific records, on the 23d of October, 1869. Her captain and crew, 14 in number, had collected provisions and fuel, with three boats, on the ice, on which also was a small house. They saw the Hansa sink; then the ice drifted with them to the south. On January 2, 1870, the ice-floe was broken up in a storm, and greatly reduced in size. The party divided, each taking a boat on January 11, to be ready for emergencies. They took to the sea and worked southward in their boats, after drifting 193 days, and crossing over 9° of latitude. Early in June they rounded Cape Farewell, and reached the Danish mission station, at Friedrichsthal, and from thence obtained passage home to Bremen 1869, ’70
    An excellently planned French Arctic exploring expedition, under the savant Gustavo Lambert, was prevented from sailing by the outbreak of war with Germany; its projector, Lambert, killed in battle 1870
    United States Congress makes appropriation for outfit of the United States North Polar expedition, nnder Captain C. F. Hall, the authorizing act being signed by President Grant July 12,1870
    Polaris leaves Washington June 10; arrives at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, to be fitted for the voyage June 14,1871
    United States steamship Polaris sails from Brooklyn June 29; touches at New London, Connecticut; St. Johns, Newfoundland; and several Greenland ports; and meets the United States steamship Congress, with supplies, at Goodhavn August 10,1871
    A French gentleman, Octave Pavy, from San Francisco, sailed to go to the Polar Sea, via the Kuro Siwo 1871
    The Polaris reaches the highest northern latitude ever attained by any Teasel
    August 30,1871
    Goes into winter-quarters at Thank God Harbor, September 3, in highest winter-quarters made by Arctic explorers 1871

    Captain Hall starts on a sledge-journey to the north; is absent two weeks; returns in good health to the Polaris October 24,1871 Is immediately taken ill,partially recovers, relapses, and dies November 8, and is buried on the 11th1871

    Captain Altman came near King Carl Land; saw no ice at 79° N 1871

    A Norwegian whaleman, Elling Carlsen, circumnavigated Nova Zembla; anchored in Ice Haven, 74° 40′, on the south-east shore of most eastern island; found the house erected by William Barentz, the Dutch explorer, two hundred and eighty-seven years before 1871

    A Russian Government expedition started from Archangel, and another from the Yenisei River 1871

    James Lamont, of England, made three Arctic voyages 1869-71

    West Indian fruits and drift-wood found north of Nova Zembla by whalers. 1871, ’72

    Swedish Government expedition, under Professor Nordenskiold, sailed, in the Polheen, an iron steamship, with a steam consort, and a brig, in the summer of 1872

    Lieutenant Payer, of the Austrian army, and Lieutenant Weyprecht, of the Austrian navy, hired a Norwegian sailing-vessel, and sailed in June for King Carl Land; in 78° found the sea open, and made other valuable discoveries… 1872

    An Italian Government steamship accompanied the above expedition to the north cape of Nova Zembla 1872

    Captain Nils Jansen, a Norwegian whaler, in a vessel of 26 tons, sailed east of Spitzbergen to bay of King Carl Land; from top of high mountain saw the open water east and north-east; no ice; to the N.N.W. land was visible (the Gillis Land of the old geographers); saw birds, seals, large reindeer, and quantities of drift-wood. Anchored in 79° 8′ N 1872

    Arctic exploring ship Polaris breaks, during a violent storm, from the floe to which she is anchored, and is driven in a north-easterly direction by the wind, leaving nineteen persons adrift on the ice October 15,1872

    Captain Buddington beaches the Polaris (October 16) at Life-boat Cove, near Littleton Island; abandons the ship, and winters on the main-land 1872-73

    Captain Tyson with a party of eighteen souls drift away on an ice-floe; lose sight of the Polaris, and continue to drift a S.S.W. course from October 15, 1872, until the 30th of April, 1873, without serious sickness or loss of life 1872,73

    Captain Tyson and party picked up by sealer Tigress, Captain Bartlett; April 30,1873

    The United States steamship Frolic sent to bring the party to Washington; took them on board at St. Johns, Newfoundland ; sailed thence May 28 ; arrived at Washington June 5,1873

    Official examination of the officers, crew, and Esquimaux rescued by Tigress before a Naval Board of Inquiry, held on board the United States steamship Tallapoosa at Washington, concluded June 16,1873
    Imperial Geographical Society of Russia sent sledge exploring party, under the experienced Siberian traveler, M. Tschekanowski, with a two-years’ outfit, to survey the coast of the Polar Ocean in. Arctic Siberia 1873

    Captain Baddington and party picked up on Jane 23, by the Scotch whaler

    Ravenscraig, Captain Allen, twenty-five miles south-west of Cape York 1873

    Captain Allen transfers Captain Buddington, Emil Bessel, and nine others of the party to the whaler Arctic, of Dundee, which arrived with them at that port September 18,1873

    Mr. Bryan, the chaplain and astronomer of the Polaris expedition, with two others of the rescued party, transferred to the Scotch whaler Intrepid, and from that to the Erick 1873

    News received from the Swedish expedition which sailed in 1872; the spectrum analysis applied by this party to the aurora borealis; wintered in lat 79° 63′, proceeding north in July 1 1873

    Professor Nordenskiold’s expedition beset in the ice at Mosel Bay; relieved by Leigh Smith’s party in the summer of 1873

    The United States steamship Juniata, Commander Braine, fitted out by Secretary of the Navy, and ordered to sail as a tender and store-ship to the coast of Greenland, with supplies for the Tigress June 12,1878

    The sealer Tigress, having been purchased by the United States, and fitted up to go in search of the Polaris and the party remaining in her, sailed from the Brooklyn Navy Yard, under Commander Greer, accompanied by Captain (pro tern, lieutenant United States Navy) Tyson as ice-pilot July 14,1873

    The Tigress and Juniata meet at Upernavik August 10; the Tigress sails north on the 11th; meets the steam-launch Little Juniata in Melville Bay 1873

    Commander Greer, of the Tigress, finds Captain Buddington’s deserted winter-camp, August 14, near Littleton Island, at Life-boat Cove. Finds Polaris sunk one mile and a half from shore 1873

    The searching steamship Tigress returned, touching at Tossac, Upernavik, and Goodhavn for news. August 25, sailed to the west coast to intercept whalers; put into Cumberland Gulf. 1873

    The whaler Arctic, having on board Captain Markham, B.R.N., and Dr. Emil Bebsel, visited Fury Beach; found wreck of the British ship Fury, lost by Captain Parry in 1824; also canned provisions in good preservation, and two English muskets bearing date of 1850, probably left by Captain Penny in 1851

    August, 1873 Commander Braine, of the Juniata, sends exploring party to north-west side of Disco Island ; coal found in abundance

    September, 1873 Leigh Smith’s English expedition in large screw-steamer Diana, at Trenerenberg Bay, July 4. Returned to Scotland in September. Discovered that North Capets an island 1873

    Captain Baddington, Emil Bessel, and party arrive at New York October 4; proceed under orders in the United States steamship Tallapoosa to Washington ; examination of the party by Naval Board October-December, 1873

    The Juniata returns to New York, arriving October 24,-1873

    Steamship Tigress left Cumberland Gulf September 16; four days later experienced a heavy gale, which continued three days; made Cape Desolation September 24; driven to sea in another gale; next day anchored in a small Fiord; repaired engine; took native pilot; made Ivgitut Fiord on the 27th; refitted, and repaired boilers and engine; sailed October 4; struck by heavy gale on the 5th, which lasted till the 8th; after a short abatement, another gale. Returned to St. Johns,

    Newfoundland. October 16,1873

    Tigress arrived at Brooklyn Navy Yard November 9,1873

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    A Short History of Rome – Chronology


    509-264 B. c.

    The conquest of Italy (Chap. IV)

    The struggle between the patricians and plebeians Chap. V)

    509 The consulship established

    508 Treaty with Carthage

    498 The dictatorship established

    496 The Latins defeated at Lake Regillus

    494 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount

    493 The tribunate of the plebs established Treaty with the Latins

    471 The concilium plebis established – The tribunes increased to ten

    462 Bill proposed by Terentilius to publish the laws

    451-449 The decemvirate and the twelve tables

    449 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount The Valerio-Horatian laws

    447 The comitia tributa established

    445 The Canuleian marriage law

    445-367 Struggle for the consulship; the consular tribunate

    443 (or 435) The censorship established

    The dates of the regal period and of the early republic are very
    B. C. 421 Military quaestors chosen Plebeians eligible to first curule office, the quaestor-ship

    405-396 War with Veii

    382 Rome taken by the Gauls

    377 The Licinian laws

    366 A plebeian made consul Praetorship established Curule aedileship established Rise of the nobilitas

    358 League with the Latins and Hernicans renewed

    356 A plebeian made dictator

    348 Treaty with Carthage

    343-1 First Samnite war, so-called

    340-338 Latin War, and dissolution of the Latin league

    339 The Publilian laws

    338 A plebeian made praetor Antium founded, first maritime colony

    326 The proconsulship established

    326-304 Second Samnite war

    321 Roman army captured at the Caudine Pass

    312-308 Reforms of Appius Claudius Caecus

    312 The Via Appia and the Aqua Appia built

    311 First duoviri navales appointed About

    300 The Ovinian law

    298-290 Third Samnite war

    295 Battle of Sentinum

    287 The Hortensian law

    281-272 War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus

    280 Battle of Heraclea

    279 Battle of Asculum

    275 Battle of Beneventum

    Colonies planted in southern Italy

    268 Silver coinage introduced

    THE REPUBLIC 264-133 B. c.

    The conquest of the Mediterranean Lands (Chap. VI) and its effect on Rome (Chap. VII)

    264-241 First Punic war

    263 Treaty with Hiero

    260 Battle of Mylae

    256 Battle off Ecnomus
    Regulus besieges Carthage

    249 Roman defeat at Drepana

    247 Hamilcar Barcas commands in Sicily

    341 Treaty made Sicily acquired

    241 (7) Centuriate comitia reformed

    240 Livius Andronicus brings out first Latin play

    239 Birth of Ennius

    238 Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica

    238-222 Gallic wars

    237 Hamilcar develops Spain

    234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato

    229-228 Ilyrian war

    227 Number of praetors increased to four

    219 Hannibal takes Saguntum

    218-201 Second Punic war

    218 Hannibal enters Italy Battles of the Ticinus and the Trebia

    217 Battle of Lake Trasimene

    216 Battle of Cannae

    215 Alliance between Hannibal and Philip

    215-205 First Macedonian war

    212 Marcellus takes Syracuse

    211-206 P. Cornelius Scipio subdues Spain

    207 Battle of the Metaurus

    204 Scipio crosses to Africa

    202 Battle of Zama

    201 Treaty made

    200-Literary activity of Plautus

    About 200 Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria Romanized

    200-196 Second Macedonian war

    197 Battle of Cynoscephalae

    197 Provinces of Hither and Farther Spain established

    196 Independence of Greece proclaimed

    195 Cato’s unsuccessful defence of the Appian law against extravagance

    192-189 War with Antiochus III

    190 Battle of Magnesia, followed by treaty

    171-167 Third Macedonian war

    168 Battle of Pydna

    159 Death of Terence

    27 B. C. – A. D. 14 Reign of Augustus

    17 B. c. Publication of the Aeneid

    35-13 B. c. Literary activity of Horace

    A. D. 139 Completion of Hadrian’s Mausoleum

    161-180 Reign of Marcus Aurelius

    162-166 War with Parthia

    167-168 Italy ravaged by the plague

    167-175 First war with the Marcomanni

    177 Repression of Christianity by M. Aurelius begins

    178-180 Second war with the Marcomanni

    180-192 Reign of Commodus

    193 Reigns of Pertinax and Julianus


    A. D. 193-337

    From Septimius Severus to Constantine (Chap. XIXI)

    193-311 Reign of Septimius Severus apinian, the jurist, flourishes

    211-217 Reign of Caracalla

    213 All freemen made Roman citizens

    217-218 Reign of Macrinus

    218-222 Reign of Elagabalus

    222-235 Reign of Alexander Severus

    235-238 Reign of Maximinus

    238-244 Reign of Gordian

    244-249 Reign of Philip

    249-251 Reign of Decius

    250 Severe treatment of the Christians

    251-253 Reign of Gallus

    253 Reign of Aemilianus

    253-260 Reign of Valerian with his son Gallienus

    253-268 Reign of Gallienus, for 7 years as his father’s coleague

    260 Valerian made prisoner by the Persians

    268-270 Reign of Claudius

    270 Reign of Quintillus

    270-275 Reign of Aurelian

    272 Aurelian takes Palmyra

    273 Aurelian receives the submission of Tetricus

    275-276 Reign of Tacitus

    276 Reign of Florianus

    276-282 Reign of Probus

    A. D. 282-284 Reign of Cams

    384-305 Reign of Diocletian

    286-305 Diocletian and Maximian rule as August

    305-306 Constantius and Galerius colleagues

    312 Galerius’s edict of toleration

    306-324 Civil wars between aspirants for the throne

    312 Battle at the Mulvian Bridge, and Constantine’s acceptance of Christianity

    324-337 Constantine, sole emperor

    325 The Council at Nicaea

    330 Dedication of Constantinople as the imperial residence


    A. D. 337-476

    The Barbarian Invasions and the Western World in the Fifth Century (Chap. XIV)

    337-350 The successors of Constantine quarrel

    351 Constantius defeats his rivals and becomes sole emperor

    351-361 Reign of Constantius

    355 Julian associated with him in the government

    361-363 Julian reigns alone

    363-364 Reign of Jovian

    364-375 Valentinian emperor in the West

    364-378 Valens emperor in the East

    375 Valentinian II (375-392) and Gratian (375-383)
    made rulers in the West

    376 The Visigoths cross the Danube

    378 Battle of Adrianople

    379 Theodosius emperor in the East

    383 Maximus (383-388) succeeds Gratian

    392-394 Eugenius emperor in the West

    394 Theodosius defeats Eugenius and becomes sole
    emperor (394-395)

    395 The Empire divided, never to be reunited

    402 Alaric invades Italy

    406 Vandals, Suevi, and Burgundians invade Gaul

    410 Alaric takes Rome

    A. D. 425 The Visigoths settle in Gaul and Spain

    429 The Vandals invade Africa

    440-461 Leo the Great, pope

    443 The Burgundians occupy south-eastern Gaul

    449 The Saxons invade Britain

    451 Attila defeated at Chalons

    455 The Vandals sack Rome

    476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor in Rome, abdicates Odoacer called patrician of Italy by Eastern emperor


    A. D. 476-800

    Reorganization of the Empire in the West (Chap. XV)

    486 Clovis defeats the Romans at Soissons

    493-553 The Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy, established by Theodoric

    496 Clovis accepts Catholic Christianity

    537-565 Justinian emperor in the East The Code compiled

    533-534 Belisarius regains Africa

    553 Italy restored to the Eastern empire

    568 The Lombards invade Italy

    590-604 Gregory the Great, pope The Christianization of Britain begins

    610-641 Heraclius drives back the Persians

    622 The Hegira

    687 Pippin becomes ruler of all the Franks

    711 The Mohammedans enter Spain

    73a Battle of Poictiers

    751 The Mayor of the Palace made king

    768-814 Reign of Charlemagne

    774 Charlemagne made king of the Lombards

    772-803 Saxony conquered

    787 Annexation of Bavaria

    778-812 Conquest of northern Spain

    800 Charlemagne crowned emperor at Rome

    A Short History of Philosophy – BIBLIOGRAPHY


    The works of writers mentioned in the text are not here cited.

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    Kirchner,’ Katechismus der Geschichte der Philosophic’ 1878.
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    Rogers, ‘Student’s History of Philosophy.’ New edition. 1907.
    Schwegler,’ Handbook of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1879.
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    Tennemann,’ History of Philosophy’ (English Trans.). Bohn, 1852.
    Tiedemann,’ Geist der spekulativen Philosophic’ 6 vols. 1797
    Trendelenburg,’ Historische Beitrage zur Philosophic’ 3 vols. 1867.
    Turner, ‘History of Philosophy.’ 1903.
    Ueberweg-Heinze,’ History of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1896.
    Vorlander, ‘Geschichte der Philosophic’ 2 vols. 2nd edition. 1907.
    Weber,’ History of Philosophy’ (Trans.). 1896.
    Willmann,’ Geschichte des Idealismus.’ 3 vols. 1894.
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    For Primary Sources, see Diels’ ‘Doxographi Graeci.’ 1879.
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    Adam,’ Religious Teachers of Greece’ 1908.
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    Burnet, ‘Early Greek Philosophy.’ 2nd edition. 1908.
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    Ferrier,’ Lectures on Greek Philosophy.’ 1866.
    Gomperz,’ The Greek Thinkers’ (Trans.). 3 vols.
    Grote, ‘History of Greece’ 12 vols. And ‘Plato and Companions of Socrates.’
    Kostlin, ‘ Die Ethik des klassischen Altherthums.’ 1887.
    Mahaffy,’ History of Classical Greek Literature’ 3 vols. 1892.
    Marshall,’ A Short History of Greek Philosophy.’ 1891.
    Mayor,’ A Sketch of Ancient Philosophy from Thales to Cicero.’ 1881.
    Mtiller, ‘Die Geschichte der Griechischen Literatur.’ 2 vols. 1884.
    Pater, W.,’ Plato and Platonism.’Schwegler,’ Geschichte der Griechischen
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    Snider,’ Ancient European Philosophy.’ 1903.
    Windelband, ‘Geschichte der Griechischen Philosophic’ 2nd edition. 1894.
    Zeller, ‘Die Philosophic der Gricchen in ihren geschichlichen Entwickelung.’
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    Ziegler, ‘Die Ethik der Griechen und Romer.’ 1881.


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    Bryce,’ The Holy Roman Empire.’
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    Carriere, ‘Die philosophische Weltanschauung der Reformationszeit.’  1847.
    Cellini, ‘ Autobiography.’
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    De Wulf, ‘ Histoire de la Philosophic Me’dievale,’ 1900.
    Donaldson, ‘Critical History of Christian Literature and Doctrine.’3 vols.
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    Draper, ‘ Intellectual Development of Europe.’ 2 vols.
    Drummond, ‘Philo Judaeus, or Jewish-Alexandrian Philosophy in itsDevelopment and Completion.’ 2 vols. 1888.
    Duruy, ‘ History of the Middle Ages.’ 
    Fisher,’ History of Christian Doctrine.’ 
    For Patristic Period. ‘ Writings of Fathers,’ collected by Migne. 1844.
    Frith, ‘Life of Bruno.’ 
    Hallam,’ Literature of Europe in the Middle Ages.’
    Harnack, A.,’ Lehrbuch der Dogmen-Geschichte.’ 3 vols. 1890.
    Hatch, ‘ Hibbert Lectures.’
    Haur&u, B.,’ Histoire de la Philosophic Scholastique.’
    Haure’au, ‘De la Philosophic Scholastique.’ 2 vols. 1872.
    Hilgenfeld’s ‘ Ketzer Geschichte.’
    Lecky, ‘History of Rationalism in Europe’ and ‘History of EuropeanMorals.’
    4 vols.
    Luthardt,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Ethik.’ 1888.
    Mahafry, ‘ Greek World under Roman Sway.’
    Mansel, ‘ Gnostic Heresies.’ 
    Matter, ‘ Histoire du Gnosticisme.’
    Maurice, ‘ Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy.’
    Neander, ‘ Church History’ and ‘St. Bernard’ (Trans.).
    Peschel,’ Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen.’ 1879.
    Pfleiderer, ‘ Das Urchristenthum.’ 1887.
    Poole, ‘Illustrations of Thought in the Middle Ages.’
    Ptinjer,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Philosophic’ 2 vols.
    Ritschl, ‘Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirchc’ 2nd edition. 1857.
    Stockl, A., ‘Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters.’ 3 vols. 1866.
    Storr,’ Bernard of Clairvaux.’ 
    Symonds, J. A.,’ Renaissance in Italy.1 7 vols. 1886.
    Townsend,’ Great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages.’
    Trench,’ Mediaeval Church History.’
    Vaughan,’ Hours with the Mystics.’
    Werner,’ Die Scholastik des spateren Mittelalters.’ 3 vols. 1881.
    West, ‘Alcuin.’ 
    Whitaker, ‘The Neo-Platonists.’
    Workman, H. B.,’ Church of the West in the Middle Ages.’ 2 vols.
    Ziegler,’ Geschichte der Christlichen Ethik.’ 1886.

    Adamson, ‘Development of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
    Burt,’ History of Modern Philosophy.’ 2 vols. 1892.
    Caldecott and MacKintosh,’ Selections from Literature of Theism.’
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    Eucken,’ Beitrage zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1886.
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    Frank, ‘Geschichte der neueren Theologic’ 
    Gervinus,’ Literatur-Geschichtc’ 5 vols.
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    Pfleiderer, ‘Development of Theology since Kant.’
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    Die Philosophic im 2oten Jahrhundert.’ 1907.
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    Bosanquet,’ History of Aesthetics.’
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    Cairns, J.,’ Unbelief in the Eighteenth Century.’
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    Chalybaus,’ Historical Development of Speculative Thought from Kantto
    Clodd, E., ‘Pioneers of Evolution from Thales to Huxley.’
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    Heine, H., ‘ Thoughts on Literature and Philosophy.’
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    Inge,’ Christian Mysticism.’
    Janet,’ The Materialism of the Present Day.’
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    Ktilpe, Oswald, ‘Die Philosophie der Gegenwart in Deutschland.’ 1903.
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    Lichtenberger, ‘ History of German Theology in the NineteenthCentury.’
    Liilman, ‘Das Bild des Christenthums bei der grossen DeutschenIdealisten.’
    M’Cosh, ‘ Scottish Philosophy.’
    Mackintosh, R., ‘From Comte to Benjamin Kidd.’
    Mackintosh,’ On the Progress of Ethical Philosophy during the
    Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.’ 1872.
    Martineau,’ Types of Ethical Theory.’
    Morley, l Diderot and the Encyclopedists.’  ‘ 
    Voltaire.’  ‘
    Rousseau.’ Noire, Ludw., ‘Development of Philosophic Thought from Thales to Kant
    Oman, J., ‘ Problems of Faith and Freedom in the last two Centuries.’
    Pfleiderer,’ Religionsphilosophie.’ 2 vols. English translation. 1888.
    Praeger, ‘Geschichte der Deutschen Mystic im Mittelalter.’
    Prantl, ‘Geschichte der Logik.’ 
    Rosenkrantz, ‘ Die Deutsche Mystik.’
    Schaller, ‘Geschichte der Naturphilosophie seit Bacon.’ 2 vols. 1844.
    Schasler, ‘Kritische Geschichte der Aesthetik.’
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    Siebeck,’ Geschichte der Psychologie., 1880-4.
    Siebert, ‘Geschichte der neueren Philosophic’ 1905.
    Stephen, Leslie,’ History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century/
    Stephen, Leslie,’ The English Utilitarians.’
    Villa, ‘Contemporary Psychology’ (Trans.). 1903.
    Vogt, K.,’ Neo-Platonismus und Christenthum.’
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    Hedonistic Theories from Aristippus to Spencer 1895.’
    The Philosophical Basis of Religion.’ 1907.
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    On Socrates.
    Forbes, ‘Socrates, World’s Epoch Maker.’ 1902.
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    Zeller, ‘ Socrates and the Socratic Schools.’

    On Heraclitus.
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    On Pythagoras.
    Chaignet, 1873.Hankel, ‘Geschichte der Math.’ 1874.

    On Plato.
    Adam,’ Republic’
    Bosanquet,’ Companion to Republic’
    Bryan,’ Republic’
    Bussell, F. W.,’ The School of Plato.’ 1896.
    Collins,’ Plato.
    FouilHe,’ La Philosophic de Platon.’
    Grote,’ Plato.’ 3 vols. Hermann,’ 
    Geschichte und System der Platonischen Philosophic’ 1839.
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    Nettleship,’ Philosophical Lectures and Remains.’ 2 vols.
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    Ribbing,’ Platonische Ideenlehrc’ 1863.
    Ritchie, ‘ Plato.’
    Schaarschmidt,’ Die Sammlung der Platonischen Schriften.’ 1866.
    Seth, J.,’ Study of Ethical Principles.’
    Shorey, ‘Unity of Plato’s Thought.’ 
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    Windelband,’ Platon.’ 1905.

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    Lewes, ‘ Aristotle.’ 1864.
    Wallace,’ Psychology.’ 1882.
    Welldon,’Ethics,’ 1892 ; ‘Politics,’ 1888.

    On Bacon.
    Abbott, ‘Life.’ 1885.
    Church, ‘ Men of Letters.’ 1884.
    Fischer, K.,’ Francis Bacon.’
    Fowler,’ Novum Organum.’ 1878.
    Macaulay,’ Essays.’ 
    Nichol,’ Bacon.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)

    On Locke and Hume.
    Calderwood, ‘ David Hume.’
    Elkin, ‘ Hume.’
    Fraser, *’Locke.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
    Green’s ‘ Introduction to Hume.’
    Huxley,’ Hume.’ (‘ English Men of Letters.’)
    Hyslop’s ‘ Hume’s Essays.’
    Jodl, ‘ Leben und Philosophic von D. Hume.’ 1872.
    Knight,’ Hume.’ 
    Laurie,’ Scottish Philosophy.’
    M’Cosh, ‘ Scottish Philosophy.’ 
    Orr,’ Hume.’

    On Berkeley.
    Fraser, ‘ Selections’ and Berkeley. (‘ Philosophical Classics.’) „
    ‘ Collected Works.’ 4 vols. 1871.
    On Leibnitz, Wolff, Tkomasius, etc.
    Caspari, ‘ Leibnitz’ Philosophic’
    Dewey,’ Leibnitz ‘New Essays.’
    Dillmann, ‘Monadslehre.’ 1891.
    Duncan, ‘Selections from the Philosophical Works of Leibnitz.’
    Merz, ‘Leibnitz.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
    Russell, ‘ Leibnitz’
    Sorley, ‘Encyclopaedia Britannica.’
    Thilly, ‘Leibnitzens Streit gegen Locke.’ 1891.

    On Descartes and Spinoza.
    Bolin, ‘Geisteshelden.’ 1894.
    Caird, E., ‘ Essays on Literature and Philosophy.’ 2 vols.
    Caird, J.,’ Spinoza.’ (c Philosophical Classics.’)
    Duff, R. A., ‘Spinoza’s Political and Ethical Philosophy.’ 1903.
    Iverach,’ Descartes and Spinoza.’Joachim,’ Spinoza.’ . 
    Mahaffy,’ Descartes.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)  
    Martineau,  Spinoza. ‘
    Pollock, Fred., ‘Life and Works of Spinoza.’ 1880.
    Veitch,’ Method,’ etc. 
    Willis,’ Spinoza.’

    On French Encyclopedists.
    Caird,’ Essays on Literature, etc.
    Davidson, ‘Rousseau and Education according to Nature’ 
    Monographs of J. Morley’Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and Condorcet.

    On Kant.
    Abbott, ‘ Kant’s Theory of Ethics.’
    Adamson, ‘The Philosophy of Kant.’
    Adicker, ‘Kant-Studien.’ 1895. See Ueberweg-Heinze for full list.
    Consult also Vries, Maimon, Krug, Reinhold, and Fichtc For
    Neo-Kantism see Natorp, Cohen, Lange, etc.
    Caird, E.,’ Critical Philosophy of Kant.’ 2 vols.
    Cohen, ‘ Kant’s Theorie der Erfahrung,’ and other works. 
    Complete works published by Hartenstein, 10 vols. Rosenkranz, 12 vols.
    Cousin, ‘ Kant.’
    Legons sur Kant.’ 1842.
    Desdouits,’ La Philosophie de Kant d’apres les trois Critiques.’ 1876.
    Green,’ Lectures.’ 
    Holder,’ Kantische Erkenntnisslehrc’
    Liebmann,’ Kant und die Epigonen.’
    Meiklejohn,’ Translation of Critique.,
    Paulsen, ‘Versuch einer Entwicklungs – Geschichte der Kantischen
    Erkenntnisslehre,’ and ‘ Was Kant uns sein kann.’ ‘ Kant, Life and
    Riehl, ‘Kant und seine Philosophic’ 1907.
    Schurman,’ Kantian Ethics and the Ethics of Evolution.’
    Seth, ‘ From Kant to Hegel’
    Wallace, W.Kant.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
    Watson, ‘Kant and his English Critics.’ ‘The Philosophy of Kant
    Explained.’ 1908.

    On Fichte, Schelling, Hegel.
    Adam son,’ Fichte.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
    Caird, E.,’ Hegel.’ (‘ Philosophical Classics.’)
    Chalybaus,’ Speculative Thought.’
    Everett,’ Fichte, Science of Knowledge.’
    Fuchs,’ Schelling, Schopferischer Handeln.’ 1907.
    Harris,i Hegel’s Logic’ 1890.
    Haym, R.,’ Hegel und seine Zeit,’ and the ‘ Romantische Schule.’ 1870.
    Hegel’s Complete Works, 19 vols. Rosenkranz, 1832-44.
    Kedney,’ Hegel’s Aesthetics.’ (‘ Grieg’s Classics.’)
    Kostlin, K.,’ Hegel.’
    Mackintosh, R., ‘ Hegel and Hegelianism.’
    Morris,’ Hegel’s Philosophy of the State and of History.’ 1887.
    Rosenkranz, C, ‘ Hegel’s Leben,’ etc.
    Scheer, ‘ Hegel et l’Hegelianisme.’ 1865.
    Seth, ‘ Hegelianism and Personality.’  ‘ 
    From Kant to Hegel.’
    Stirling, Hutch.,’ Secret of Hegel.’
    Ulrici,’ Princip u. Method der Hegel. Philosophic’ 1843.
    Vera, ‘ Introduction a la Philosophic de Hegel.’ 1864.
    Wallace, W.,’Hegel,” Prolegomena.’
    Watson, l Schelling’s Transcendental Idealism.’
    Zimmer,’ Fichte’s Religionsphilosophic’

    On Herbart and Schopenhauer.
    Capesius,’ Die Metaphysik Herbarts.’ 1878.
    Kaftan. 1872. 
    Ribot,’ La Psychologie allemande contemporaire 1879.
    Riehl, ‘ Nietzsche, der Kunstler u. Denker.’
    Seydel,’ Schopenhauer’s System.’ 1857.
    Sully,’ Pessimism.’ 1891.
    Volkelt, ‘Schopenhauer.’
    Wallace, W. ‘Schopenhauer.’ (‘Great Writers Series.’)
    Wenley,’ Aspects of Pessimism.’
    Zimmern, ‘Schopenhauer, His Life and Philosophy.’ 1876.

    On Schiller and Goethe.
    Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe.’
    Fischer, K., ‘ Schiller als Philosoph.’ 
    Novalis, * Werke.’ 2 vols.
    Schrempf, (Lessing, als Philosoph.’
    Siebeck,’ Goethe als Denker.’

    On Schleiermacher,
    Bender,’ Schleiemacher’s Theologie mit ihreti Phil. Grundlagen.’
    Huber, ‘Die Entwickelung des Religionsbegriffs von Schleiermacher. 
    Oman, J.,’ Reden’ (Trans.). 
    See also Hartenstein, Schaller, Twesten, Auberten, Ritschl, Dilthey’sLife.’

    On Lotze and Wundt.
    Falckenberg,’ Hermann Lotze.’ 
    Jones, Prof.,’ Philosophy of Lotze.’
    Konig, ‘Wundt, als Psycholog.’

    On Comte.
    Balfour,’ Foundations of Belief.’
    Caird, E.,’ Social Philosophy of Comte.’
    Lewes, G. H.,’ Comte’s Philosophy of the Sciences.’
    Mackintosh, R., ‘From Comte to Benjamin Kidd.’
    Martineau, H.,’ Comte.’ Condensed. 1853.
    Mill, J. S., ‘Auguste Comte and Positivism.’

    On Spencer,
    Collins,’ Epitome of Synthetic Philosophy.’
    Fiske, ‘Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy.’ 2 vols. 1874.
    Fischer, ‘Uber das Gesetz d. Entwickelung.’ 1875.
    Hudson,’ The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer.’
    Michelet,’ Spencer’s System of Philosophic’ 1882.
    Ritchie,’ Darwin and Hegel.’
    Watson,’ Outline of Philosophy :Comte, Mill, Spencer.’

    On Eucken.
    Gibson, Royce, ‘ Eucken’s Philosophy of Life.’ 



    A Short History of Paper Money and Banking – Chronology

    BANKING FROM 1780 TO 1810-11.


    Of Banking from 1790 to 1810-11,

    In Vol. II of the American edition of the Edinburgh Cyclopedia, published in 1813, the following table is given, ” to exhibit in one view the names of the Banks most deserving of notice, the time of their institution, and the amount of their capital.” The table is not complete, but it shows the time in which the Banking system was introduced into the different States.

    Names. Instituted. Capital.

    Bank of North America, Pa. 1781-2 $ 2,000,000

    Massachusetts Bank at Boston, Mass. 1784 1,600,000

    Bank of New York, N. Y. 1784 950,000

    Bank of Maryland, Md. 1790 300,000

    Providence Bank, R. I. 1791 400,000

    Bank of Albany, N. Y. 1792 260.000

    Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1792 640,000

    Union Bank of Boston, Mass. 1792 1,200,000

    New Hampshire Bank, N. H. 1792 100,000

    Bank of Alexandria, Va. 1792 500,000

    Hartford Bank, Conn. 1792 930,000

    Union Bank, New London, Conn. 1792 500,000

    New Haven Bank, Conn. 1792 400,000

    Bank of Columbia, N.Y. 1793 160,000

    Bank of Columbia, D. C. 1793 500,000

    Bank of Pennsylvania, Pa. 1793 3,000,000

    Bank of Nantucket, Mass. 1795 100,000

    Bank of Delaware, Del. 1795 110,000

    Bank of Baltimore, Md. 1795 1,200,000

    Middletown Bank, Conn. . 1795 400,000

    Bank of Rhode Island, R. I. 1795 100,000

    Norwich Bank, Conn. 1796 200,000

    Manhattan Bank, N. Y. 1799 2,000,000

    Portland Bank, Me. 1799 300,000

    Essex Bank, Salem, Mass. 1799 300,000

    Washington Bank, Westerly, R. I. 1800 50,000

    Bank of Bristol, 1800- 120,000

    Exchange Bank, Providence, R. I. 1801 400,000

    Farmers’ Bank, Lansioburgh, N. Y. 1801 75,000

    State Bank of South Carolina, S. C. 1801 800,000

    Maine Bank, Portland, Me. 1802 300,000

    New Hampshire Union Bank, N.H. 1802 200,000

    Names. Instituted. Capital.

    Lin and Ken Bank, Wiscasset, Me. 1802 $ 200,000

    Kentucky Insurance Company, Ky. 1802 150,000

    Merchants Bank, N.Y. 1803 1,250,000

    Bedford Bank, atN. B., Mass. 1803 150,000

    New York State Bank, N. Y. 1803 460,000

    Newburyport Bank, Mass. 1803 550,000

    Saco Bank, Mass. 1803 100,000

    Albany Mercantile N. Y. 1803 25,000

    Plymouth Bank Mass. 1803 100,000

    Boston Bank, Mass. 1803 1,800,000

    Stafford Bank, at Dover, Mass. 1803 150,000

    Philadelphia Bank, Pa- 1803 2,000,000

    Miami Exporting Comp., Cinn. O. 1803 200,000

    Salem Bank, Mass. 1803 200,000

    Roger Williams Bank, R. I. 1803 150,000

    Newport Bank, R. . 1803 120,000

    Warren Bank, R. I. 1803 68,000

    Exeter Bank, N H. 200,000

    Union Bank of Maryland, Md. 1804 3,000,000

    Bank of Cape Fear, N. C. 1804 350,000

    Baokof Newhern, N C. 1804 300,000

    Newark Banking and Ins., Co. N J. 1804 225,000

    Trenton Bank N J 1804 300,000

    Hallowell and Augusta Bank, Me. 1804 200,000

    Worcester Bank, Mass. 1804 150,000

    Nantucket Pacific Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

    Marblehead Bank, Mass. 1804 100,000

    Rhode Island Union Bank, R. I. 1804 150,000

    Smithfield Union Bank, R. I. 1805 50,000

    Narragansett Bank, R. 1. 1805 60,000

    Rhode Island Central Bank, R. I. 1805 60,000

    Bank of Virginia, Va. 1805 1,500,000

    Mechanics’ Bank, Baltimore, Md. 1806 1,000,000

    Bank of Chilicothe, Ohio 1806 100,000

    Bridgeport Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

    Derby Bank, Conn. 1806 200,000

    Bank of Kentucky, Ky. 1807 1,000,000

    Bank of Nashville, Ten. 1807 500,000

    Bank of Marietta, Ohio 1807 100,000

    Farmers Bk. of the State of Del., D. 1807 500,000

    New Brunswick Bank, N. J. 1807 150,000

    Farmers and Mechanics Bank, Pa. 1807 1,250,000

    Hagerstown Bank, Md. 1807 250,000

    Mohawk Bank, N. Y. 1807 200,000

    New London Bank, Conn. 1807 200,000

    Hudson Bank, N. Y. 1808 300,000