A Short History of Rome – Chronology


509-264 B. c.

The conquest of Italy (Chap. IV)

The struggle between the patricians and plebeians Chap. V)

509 The consulship established

508 Treaty with Carthage

498 The dictatorship established

496 The Latins defeated at Lake Regillus

494 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount

493 The tribunate of the plebs established Treaty with the Latins

471 The concilium plebis established – The tribunes increased to ten

462 Bill proposed by Terentilius to publish the laws

451-449 The decemvirate and the twelve tables

449 The plebeians secede to the Sacred Mount The Valerio-Horatian laws

447 The comitia tributa established

445 The Canuleian marriage law

445-367 Struggle for the consulship; the consular tribunate

443 (or 435) The censorship established

The dates of the regal period and of the early republic are very
B. C. 421 Military quaestors chosen Plebeians eligible to first curule office, the quaestor-ship

405-396 War with Veii

382 Rome taken by the Gauls

377 The Licinian laws

366 A plebeian made consul Praetorship established Curule aedileship established Rise of the nobilitas

358 League with the Latins and Hernicans renewed

356 A plebeian made dictator

348 Treaty with Carthage

343-1 First Samnite war, so-called

340-338 Latin War, and dissolution of the Latin league

339 The Publilian laws

338 A plebeian made praetor Antium founded, first maritime colony

326 The proconsulship established

326-304 Second Samnite war

321 Roman army captured at the Caudine Pass

312-308 Reforms of Appius Claudius Caecus

312 The Via Appia and the Aqua Appia built

311 First duoviri navales appointed About

300 The Ovinian law

298-290 Third Samnite war

295 Battle of Sentinum

287 The Hortensian law

281-272 War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus

280 Battle of Heraclea

279 Battle of Asculum

275 Battle of Beneventum

Colonies planted in southern Italy

268 Silver coinage introduced

THE REPUBLIC 264-133 B. c.

The conquest of the Mediterranean Lands (Chap. VI) and its effect on Rome (Chap. VII)

264-241 First Punic war

263 Treaty with Hiero

260 Battle of Mylae

256 Battle off Ecnomus
Regulus besieges Carthage

249 Roman defeat at Drepana

247 Hamilcar Barcas commands in Sicily

341 Treaty made Sicily acquired

241 (7) Centuriate comitia reformed

240 Livius Andronicus brings out first Latin play

239 Birth of Ennius

238 Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica

238-222 Gallic wars

237 Hamilcar develops Spain

234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato

229-228 Ilyrian war

227 Number of praetors increased to four

219 Hannibal takes Saguntum

218-201 Second Punic war

218 Hannibal enters Italy Battles of the Ticinus and the Trebia

217 Battle of Lake Trasimene

216 Battle of Cannae

215 Alliance between Hannibal and Philip

215-205 First Macedonian war

212 Marcellus takes Syracuse

211-206 P. Cornelius Scipio subdues Spain

207 Battle of the Metaurus

204 Scipio crosses to Africa

202 Battle of Zama

201 Treaty made

200-Literary activity of Plautus

About 200 Cisalpine Gaul and Liguria Romanized

200-196 Second Macedonian war

197 Battle of Cynoscephalae

197 Provinces of Hither and Farther Spain established

196 Independence of Greece proclaimed

195 Cato’s unsuccessful defence of the Appian law against extravagance

192-189 War with Antiochus III

190 Battle of Magnesia, followed by treaty

171-167 Third Macedonian war

168 Battle of Pydna

159 Death of Terence

27 B. C. – A. D. 14 Reign of Augustus

17 B. c. Publication of the Aeneid

35-13 B. c. Literary activity of Horace

A. D. 139 Completion of Hadrian’s Mausoleum

161-180 Reign of Marcus Aurelius

162-166 War with Parthia

167-168 Italy ravaged by the plague

167-175 First war with the Marcomanni

177 Repression of Christianity by M. Aurelius begins

178-180 Second war with the Marcomanni

180-192 Reign of Commodus

193 Reigns of Pertinax and Julianus


A. D. 193-337

From Septimius Severus to Constantine (Chap. XIXI)

193-311 Reign of Septimius Severus apinian, the jurist, flourishes

211-217 Reign of Caracalla

213 All freemen made Roman citizens

217-218 Reign of Macrinus

218-222 Reign of Elagabalus

222-235 Reign of Alexander Severus

235-238 Reign of Maximinus

238-244 Reign of Gordian

244-249 Reign of Philip

249-251 Reign of Decius

250 Severe treatment of the Christians

251-253 Reign of Gallus

253 Reign of Aemilianus

253-260 Reign of Valerian with his son Gallienus

253-268 Reign of Gallienus, for 7 years as his father’s coleague

260 Valerian made prisoner by the Persians

268-270 Reign of Claudius

270 Reign of Quintillus

270-275 Reign of Aurelian

272 Aurelian takes Palmyra

273 Aurelian receives the submission of Tetricus

275-276 Reign of Tacitus

276 Reign of Florianus

276-282 Reign of Probus

A. D. 282-284 Reign of Cams

384-305 Reign of Diocletian

286-305 Diocletian and Maximian rule as August

305-306 Constantius and Galerius colleagues

312 Galerius’s edict of toleration

306-324 Civil wars between aspirants for the throne

312 Battle at the Mulvian Bridge, and Constantine’s acceptance of Christianity

324-337 Constantine, sole emperor

325 The Council at Nicaea

330 Dedication of Constantinople as the imperial residence


A. D. 337-476

The Barbarian Invasions and the Western World in the Fifth Century (Chap. XIV)

337-350 The successors of Constantine quarrel

351 Constantius defeats his rivals and becomes sole emperor

351-361 Reign of Constantius

355 Julian associated with him in the government

361-363 Julian reigns alone

363-364 Reign of Jovian

364-375 Valentinian emperor in the West

364-378 Valens emperor in the East

375 Valentinian II (375-392) and Gratian (375-383)
made rulers in the West

376 The Visigoths cross the Danube

378 Battle of Adrianople

379 Theodosius emperor in the East

383 Maximus (383-388) succeeds Gratian

392-394 Eugenius emperor in the West

394 Theodosius defeats Eugenius and becomes sole
emperor (394-395)

395 The Empire divided, never to be reunited

402 Alaric invades Italy

406 Vandals, Suevi, and Burgundians invade Gaul

410 Alaric takes Rome

A. D. 425 The Visigoths settle in Gaul and Spain

429 The Vandals invade Africa

440-461 Leo the Great, pope

443 The Burgundians occupy south-eastern Gaul

449 The Saxons invade Britain

451 Attila defeated at Chalons

455 The Vandals sack Rome

476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor in Rome, abdicates Odoacer called patrician of Italy by Eastern emperor


A. D. 476-800

Reorganization of the Empire in the West (Chap. XV)

486 Clovis defeats the Romans at Soissons

493-553 The Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy, established by Theodoric

496 Clovis accepts Catholic Christianity

537-565 Justinian emperor in the East The Code compiled

533-534 Belisarius regains Africa

553 Italy restored to the Eastern empire

568 The Lombards invade Italy

590-604 Gregory the Great, pope The Christianization of Britain begins

610-641 Heraclius drives back the Persians

622 The Hegira

687 Pippin becomes ruler of all the Franks

711 The Mohammedans enter Spain

73a Battle of Poictiers

751 The Mayor of the Palace made king

768-814 Reign of Charlemagne

774 Charlemagne made king of the Lombards

772-803 Saxony conquered

787 Annexation of Bavaria

778-812 Conquest of northern Spain

800 Charlemagne crowned emperor at Rome